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Институциональная экономика (подробнее...)

Статьи

Всего статей в данном разделе : 685

Опубликовано на портале: 28-10-2007
Joseph E. Stiglitz, Richard R. Nelson, Giovanni Dosi, Mario Cimoli LEM Papers Series. 2006.  No. 2006/02.
In this work, meant as an introduction to the contributions of the task force on Industrial Policies and Development, Initiative for Policy Dialogue, Columbia University, New York, the authors discuss the role of institutions and policies in the process of development. They begin by arguing how misleading the "market failure" language can be in order to assess the necessity of public policies in that it evaluates it against a yardstick that is hardly met by any observed market set-up. Much nearer to the empirical evidence the authors argue that even when one encounters a prevailing market form of governance of economic interactions, the latter are embedded in a rich thread of non-market institutions. This applies in general and is particularly so with respect to the production and use of information and technological knowledge. In this work they build on the fundamental institutional embeddedness of such processes of technological learning in both developed and catching-up countries and we try to identify some quite robust policy ingredients which have historically accompanied the co-evolution between technological capabilities, forms of corporate organisations and incentive structures. All experiences of successful catching-up and sometimes overtaking the incumbent economic leaders – starting with the USA vis-à-vis Britain – have involved “institution building” and policy measures affecting technological imitation, the organisations of industries, trade patterns and intellectual property rights. This is likely to apply today, too, – also in the context of a “globalised” world economy.
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Опубликовано на портале: 05-02-2003
Douglass C. North Economics Working Paper Archive at WUSTL. 1994. 
The performance of an economy is a function of both the institutions and technology developed in a society but the literature on productivity is devoid of any discussion of the institutional foundations of the economy. Instead that literature and the growth accounting quantitative foundations of that analysis focus on the significance of the capital stock, technology, R&D, and savings in the rate of growth of productivity. The new growth economics literature equally equates growth with human capital investment, physical capital, savings and sometimes as a negative function of population growth. The argument of this essay is that productivity increases result from both improvements in human organization and from technological developments.
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Опубликовано на портале: 05-02-2003
Stefan Voigt, Hella Engerer SSRN Working Papers. 2001. 
Paper presents a short overview of the New Institutional Economics. It is not intended to be a complete survey of the field but an extract that concentrates on the specific arguments made here that are in contrast with the assumptions commonly made in mainstream theory. Since the aim of this paper is to come up with policy implications, specific assumptions will be emphasized only if they might become crucial for policy implications. The results of some empirical studies are presented after having dealt with some of the methodological problems. One of the parts focuses on the NIE in the context of the transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe.
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Опубликовано на портале: 06-02-2003
James Shaffer Michigan State University Staff Paper. 1995.  No. 95-52.
The relationships between and among institutions, participant's behavior and economic performance are important in several academic disciplines, in the practical affairs of governments, and in the decisions of firms, households and individuals. The most basic generic paradigm in social science is that social and physical environments shape or at least influence human behavior and the resulting behavior of individuals interacting with the environment influences the performance of the unit of society under consideration. This essay is concerned with the problems of developing and using paradigms, theories, or simple beliefs about the relationships among institutions, behavior and performance, recognizing that behavior is never determined by institutions alone, but is always shaped and influenced by the environments of individual actors as well as by their physical makeup.
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Опубликовано на портале: 07-10-2003
Dennis William Carlton, Robert H. Gertner NBER Working Paper Series. 2002.  No. 8796.
В работе анализируется противоречие между антимонопольным законодательством, пытающимся обеспечить статическую эффективность рынков, и законом об интеллектуальных правах собственности, связанным с динамическими аспектами конкуренции в научно-исследовательском секторе. Исследование проводится применительно к политике слияния. Поднимается вопрос о необходимости координации применения двух законов.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-10-2008
Rafael La Porta, Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes, Andrei Shleifer, Robert W. Vishny Journal of Financial Economics. 2000.  Vol. 58. No. 1-2. P. 3-27. 
Recent research has documented large differences among countries in ownership concentration in publicly traded firms, in the breadth and depth of capital markets, in dividend policies, and in the access of firms to external finance. A common element to the explanations of these differences is how well investors, both shareholders and creditors, are protected by law from expropriation by the managers and controlling shareholders of firms. We describe the differences in laws and the effectiveness of their enforcement across countries, discuss the possible origins of these differences, summarize their consequences, and assess potential strategies of corporate governance reform. We argue that the legal approach is a more fruitful way to understand corporate governance and its reform than the conventional distinction between bank-centered and market-centered financial systems.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-10-2008
Rafael La Porta, Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes, Andrei Shleifer, Robert W. Vishny Journal of Finance. 2002.  Vol. 57. No. 3. P. 1147-1170. 
We present a model of the effects of legal protection of minority shareholders and of cash-flow ownership by a controlling shareholder on the valuation of firms. We then test this model using a sample of 539 large firms from 27 wealthy economies. Consistent with the model, we find evidence of higher valuation of firms in countries with better protection of minority shareholders and in firms with higher cash-flow ownership by the controlling shareholder.
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Опубликовано на портале: 06-11-2008
Andrei Shleifer, D. Wolfenzon Journal of Financial Economics. 2002.  Vol. 66. No. 1. P. 3-27 . 
We present a simple model of an entrepreneur going public in an environment with poor legal protection of outside shareholders. The model incorporates elements of Becker's (J. Political Econ. 106 (1968) 172) "crime and punishment" framework into a corporate finance environment of Jensen and Meckling (J. Financial Econ. 3 (1976) 305). We examine the entrepreneur's decision and the market equilibrium. The model is consistent with a number of empirical regularities concerning the relation between investor protection and corporate finance. It also sheds light on the patterns of capital flows between rich and poor countries and on the politics of reform of investor protection.
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Опубликовано на портале: 05-12-2010
Андрей Павлович Заостровцев Journal of Institutional Studies (Журнал институциональных исследований). 2010.  Т. 2. № 1. С. 112-116. 
Проходившая в Петербурге 12–13 февраля 2010 г. конференция была организована Международным центром социально-экономических исследований («Леонтьевский центр»).
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Опубликовано на портале: 19-01-2007
Geoffrey M. Hodgson Review of Social Economy. 2005.  Vol. 63. No. 4. P. 547-565. 
With a predilection for market solutions, neoliberalism upholds that the individual is generally the best judge of his or her interests. Yet markets are never universally applied as a mechanism of allocation and there are reasons, in principle, why capitalism will always have “missing markets.” Concentrating on the application and appropriateness of neoliberal theory to the workplace, this article argues that firms are not markets, despite some tendencies in modern theory to conflate the two. The employment contract is a key characteristic of modern firms, but neoliberal theory is often silent on the distinction between an employment contract and a contract for services, and largely ignores the asymmetrical rights of authority within contracts of employment. Furthermore, the social nature of knowledge represents a challenge to neoliberal theory and policy, because it sometimes makes it more difficult to define individual property rights. Accordingly, with the growth of the knowledge economy, neoliberalism to some extent is an anachronism.
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Опубликовано на портале: 07-10-2003
Diego Puga, Daniel Trefler NBER Working Paper Series. 2002.  No. 9121.
В контексте подхода принципала-агента авторы анализируют процесс стимулирования и контроля над небольшими инновациями в технологии создания сложного продукта. На основе анализа данных ряда отраслей показывается взаимосвязь между организационной формой производства и процессами создания и управления знаниями.
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Опубликовано на портале: 14-03-2003
Детальная библиография по праву и экономике (статьи). Открытый доступ к оглавнениям журналов по праву и экономике: European Journal of Law and Economics; International Review of Law and Economics; Journal of Law, Economics and Organization и др.
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Law and Finance [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-10-2008
Rafael La Porta, Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes, Andrei Shleifer, Robert W. Vishny Journal of Political Economy. 1998.  Vol. 106. No. 6. P. 1113-1155. 
This paper examines legal rules covering protection of corporate shareholders and creditors, the origin of these rules, and the quality of their enforcement in 49 countries. The results show that common-law countries generally have the strongest, and French-civil-law countries the weakest, legal protections of investors, with German- and Scandinavian-civil-law countries located in the middle. We also find that concentration of ownership of shares in the largest public companies is negatively related to investor protections, consistent with the hypothesis that small, diversified shareholders are unlikely to be important in countries that fail to protect their rights.
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Опубликовано на портале: 06-10-2003
Kathryn Hendley, Peter Murrell, Randi Ryterman
Анализ данных, проведенный авторами, показывает определенный успех развития правовых институтов в России. Экономическая и институциональная среда стимулируют предприятия инвестировать в разработку легальной контрактной системы, которая создает новые возможности для легальной занятости/работы.
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Опубликовано на портале: 06-10-2003
Nicolai J. Foss, Kirsten Foss
Существует два подхода к анализу фирмы: организационный, который объясняет организационную структуру через распределение прав собственности и стимулов, и подход, базирующийся на знании (knowledge-based approach), который акцентирует внимание на специфических знаниях, которыми обладает фирма, и на процессе обучения. Авторы совмещают два подхода, уделяя особое внимание эксперименту, как средству поиска решения в координационных проблемах производственных систем, и возникающим трансакционным издержкам. Эти трансакционные издержки, по мнению авторов, позволяют определить существование, границы и внутреннюю организационную структуру фирмы.
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