Всего статей в данном разделе : 206
Опубликовано на портале: 15-10-2007Metin Cosgel University of Connecticut, Department of Economics Working Paper. 2004.
В данной статье представлены стандартизированные расчеты производительность труда в области земледелия Османской империи, включая Иерусалим и прилегающие области восточного средиземноморья. Превоисточником для расчетов является записи о налогах. Результаты исследования говорят о том, что уровень производительности труда в сельском хозяйстве Османской империи 15 и 16 веков, может быть сравним с производитльностью труда многих европейских стран конца 19 века.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2007Mark Billings Business and Economic History. 2007. Vol. 5.
In this paper, I explore a hitherto largely neglected area of business history: the corporate treasury. Most business or corporate historians consider the corporate treasury function a specialized aspect of the finance function and give it little explicit attention. I argue that this neglect is undeserved, and consider how and why treasury has evolved as a discipline distinct from other aspects of the finance function. We can attribute the rise of the professional corporate treasurer to a number of factors: changes in the organization and financing of companies, including change and innovation in financial markets; the wider professionalization of management; and the internationalization of business. These factors affected different countries at different times. In Europe, economic and financial uncertainties in the 1970s acted as a major stimulus, whereas treasury, in common with other aspects of the "managerial revolution," developed earlier in the United States.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-10-2007Avner Greif Stanford University - Department of Economics: Working Paper. 1997. No. 97-017.
This paper surveys the small, yet growing, literature that employs game theory for economic history analysis. It elaborates on the promise and challenge of integrating game theoretical and economic history analyses and presents the approaches taken in conducting such an integration. Most of the essay, however, is devoted to presenting studies in economic history that utilize game theory as their main analytical framework. Studies are presented based on their substance to highlight the range of potential topics in economic history that can be and had been enriched through a game theoretical analysis.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2007R. Daniel Wadhwani, Geoffrey Jones Business and Economic History. 2007. Vol. 5.
This paper builds on the recent efforts of a number of scholars to reintroduce entrepreneurship into the research agenda of business historians. We consider the role of entrepreneurship in the history of multinational business and globalization. The paper examines the value and limitations of adapting recent social scientific theories and methods on entrepreneurship to research on international business history. Specifically, we focus on three recent areas of social scientific work on entrepreneurship and weigh their value to business history research. First, we consider research on entrepreneurial cognition and the extent to which it can be employed to understand the historical ownership advantages of multinational firms. Second, we draw on concepts from entrepreneurial strategy and finance and examine the extent to which they can be used to understand the history of how firms allocated resources to uncertain international ventures. Finally, we focus on the question of the diffusion of the benefits of globalization and their impact on entrepreneurship within host economies. We conclude that the cautious adoption of some of these recent conceptual developments offers fertile opportunities for further research in international business history.
Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2007Maristella Botticini, Zvi Eckstein IZA Discussion Papers. 2002. No. 670.
Since the Middle Ages the Jews have been engaged primarily in urban, skilled occupations, such as crafts, trade, finance, and medicine. This distinctive occupational selection occurred between the seventh and the ninth centuries in the Muslim Empire and then it spread to other locations. We argue that this transition was the outcome of the widespread literacy among Jews prompted by an educational reform in the first century CE. Based on the growing nexus between education and Judaism in the first half of the millennium, we build a model in which Jewish men choose education, occupation, religion, and location. The model predicts that when urbanization expands (as it did in the Muslim Empire), Jews move to new cities due to their comparative advantage in urban, skilled occupations. Furthermore, before urbanization a proportion of Jewish farmers are predicted to convert to other religions. The predictions of the model regarding conversions, migrations, and reduction in the size of the Jewish population are consistent with the historical evidence about the first millennium provided by the historians. Hence, our study presents evidence for the long-term economic implications of changes in social norms.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-12-2003Alan M. Taylor NBER Working Paper Series. 2002. w9326.
Recent research in international economic history has opened up new lines of enquiry on the origins of globalization, as well as its causes and consequences. Such findings have the potential to inform contemporary debates and this paper considers what lessons this body of historical work has for our current understanding of the linkages between trade and development.
Historical Statistics of the United States Chapter on Voluntary, Nonprofit, and Religious Entities and Activities: Underlying Concepts, Concerns, and Opportunities [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-10-2007Peter Dobkin Hall, Colin B. Burke Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations. 2002.
This paper is a draft of the introduction to the chapter on voluntary, nonprofit, and religious entities and activities slated to appear in the Millennial Edition of Historical Statistics of the United States. Conceding the various problematic definitions of the "nonprofit sector," the essay offers a rationale for the broadly inclusive approach to the selection of historical statistics of institutions and activities presented in the chapter. In addition, it reviews the challenges and opportunities for researchers working on the statistical aspects of nonprofit, voluntary, and religious organizations. The essay includes samples of the statistical series that will appear in HSUS.
Improving Credibility by Delegating Judicial Competence : the Case of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2007Stefan Voigt, Michael Ebeling, Lorenz Blume Volkswirtschaftliche Diskussionsbeiträge. 2004. No. 67/04.
It is argued that government credibility is an important resource and that it can be improved by delegating decision-making competence beyond the nation-state. It is hypothesized that such delegation should result in higher income and growth. Some former British colonies retained the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council as their final court of appeals even after independence. This court is thus taken as a natural experiment to test our hypothesis. It turns out that retaining the jurisdiction is indeed significant for explaining economic growth.
In-Group Cooperation in a Hostile Environment: An Economic Perspective on Some Aspects of Jewish Life in (Pre-Modern) Diaspora [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2007Hillel Rapoport, Avi Weiss IZA Discussion Papers. 2002. No. 483.
The demographic history of the Jews in the Middle Ages may be characterized by two main phenomena: i) a sharp drop in the number of Jews until the beginning of the modern period, due mainly to conversions; and, ii) early urbanization. Until now, these features have been analyzed as primarily resulting from persecution and restrictions initiated by the political and religious authorities in the host countries. Economic historians have recently proposed an explanation based on mandatory education in the Jewish tradition (Botticini and Eckstein, 2001). We propose a supplementary explanation based on the incentives to switch affiliation and/or location in a dual environment, where potential gains from in-group cooperation for the Jewish minority may well be offset by losses due to intergroup hostility. Our model generates the two results described above (i.e., a decrease in the total number of Jews, and their concentration in urban areas), without having to rely either on discrimination policies or on investment in human capital, as in previous research.
Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2007Maristella Botticini, Zvi Eckstein IZA Discussion Papers. 2004. No. 1224.
This paper documents the major features of Jewish economic history in the first millennium to explain the distinctive occupational selection of the Jewish people into urban, skilled occupations. We show that many Jews entered urban occupations in the eighth-ninth centuries in the Muslim Empire when there were no restrictions on their economic activities, most of them were farmers, and they were a minority in all locations. Therefore, arguments based on restrictions or minority status cannot explain the occupational transition of the Jews at that time. Our thesis is that the occupational selection of the Jews was the outcome of the widespread literacy prompted by a religious and educational reform in the first century ce, which was implemented in the third to the eighth century. We present detailed information on the implementation of this religious and educational reform in Judaism based on the Talmud, archeological evidence on synagogues, the Cairo Geniza documents, and the Responsa literature. We also provide evidence of the economic returns to Jewish religious literacy.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-10-2007Richard Lyle Garner Hispanic American Historical Review. 1984. P. 535-554.
В статье анализируется динамика цен городов Латинской Америки 18 и 19 веков в момент получения независимости. Проверяется гипотеза о том, что данный переход инициировал инфляционные процессы. Результаты тестирования смешанные. Анализируемая база данных представлена здесь.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-11-2004Александр Иванович Неклесса Экономическая наука современной России. 1999. № 1. С. 71-89.
Цивилизация Нового времени пребывает в состоянии системного кризиса и противоборства трех исторических тенденций: модернизации, постмодернизации и демодернизации. Прежние формы экономической деятельности, понимаемой как последовательные, конструктивные усилия по обустройству материальной сферы бытия, размываются стремительно растущим значением кредитно-денежных операций, фактически оторванных от производственной деятельности и товарных потоков, создавая крайне неравновесную ситуацию в глобальном масштабе. Геоэкономика преобразует прежнюю национально-государственную схему мироустройства в новый, геоэкономический континуум, основывающийся на иерархии различных видов экономической практики в рамках мирового разделения труда (финансово-правовое регулирование, производство интеллектуальных ресурсов, высокотехнологичное производство и т.п.)
Опубликовано на портале: 15-10-2007Albrecht Ritschl CEPR. 2004.
Основная часть статьи подтверждает то, что затраты труда на единицу продукции в индустриалиальных экономиках существенно увеличились после Первой мировой войны. В Германии, объем промышленного производства касательно 1913 г., рассчитанный Хоффманном (1965), при предположении, что доля заработанной платы постоянна, намного больше, чем в промежутке между войнами. Данная статья создает альтернативную оценку подверженного влиянию металлообрабатывающего сектора. Она находи гораздо меньшие уровни выпуска, вызванные фактом увеличивающейся доли рабочей силы после Первой мировой. Разница очень существенна, чтобы убрать погрешность из данных Хофманна, для целой индустрии и экономике в целом. После введения поправки на фиктивный рост в металлообрабатывающем секторе, результаты оценки Хофманна соответствуют современным оценкам и статистике доходов.
The Individual in the Community: American Entrepreneurs in the Australian Colonies, 1850–1890 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2007Deborah Breen Business and Economic History. 2007.
Following the discovery of gold in the Australian colonies in the 1850s, commercial adventurers from around the world made their way to the antipodes. Among these were a number of young American entrepreneurs. This paper examines the American entrepreneurs who made their mark in the Australian colonies in the latter half of the nineteenth century, and considers how individuals achieved success within intersecting communities. Individual entrepreneurs found support in communities based on family connections, associations through friendship and experience, and shared nationality. They also found support through informational networks created in the commercial world, including consular reports, trade magazines, and International Exhibitions. Primary sources of the era, including family letters, newspaper and magazine accounts, and consular records, reveal the complex communities within which entrepreneurs in Australia operated to achieve their commercial goals.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2007Dimitry Anastakis Business and Economic History. 2007. Vol. 5.
This paper attempts to situate Lee Iacocca's role in the Chrysler bailout within a broader automotive entrepreneurial community, and to understand how his actions in helping Chrysler stave off bankruptcy in the 1979-1981 period helped to reshape not only the automotive industry, but business-government relations, and the very nature of "brink management" in a post-industrial America. In short, the paper attempts to answer the question of whether Iacocca fundamentally changed how automotive management operated in Detroit, or whether his actions in saving Chrysler remain an isolated, unique case within auto business history. It argues that one cannot understand Iacocca without understanding the changing pre-1980 milieu and its impact on the wider automotive industry and economy of the post-1980, post-Chrysler bailout period. Iacocca and the Chrysler situation were unique, yet they remain essential to understanding the direction of the US auto industry, and the end of American industrial hegemony more broadly.