Всего статей в данном разделе : 305
Опубликовано на портале: 26-11-2007Michael Lechner, Conny Wunsch Kiel Working Papers. 2007. No. 1308.
We investigate the effects of the most important East German active labour market programmes on the labour market outcomes of their participants. The analysis is based on a large and informative individual database coming from administrative data sources. Using matching methods, we find that over a horizon of 2.5 years after programme start the programmes fail to increase the employment chances of their participants in the regular labour market. However, the programmes may have other effects for their participants that may be considered important in the especially difficult situation experienced in the East German labour market.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2007Friedhelm Pfeiffer, Karsten Reuß Center for European Economic Research Discussion Paper. 2007. No. 07-015.
In this study, we try to connect the economic literature on human capital formation with findings from neurobiology and psychology on early childhood development and self-regulation. Our basic framework for assessing the distribution of agespecific returns to investment in skills is an elaboration of the model of skill formation from Cunha, Heckman et al. (2006) over the life cycle. Our simulation based evidence illustrates the cumulative and synergetic nature of skill formation, the skill multiplier and the shaping role early childhood has for human capital formation, growth and inequality.
An Analysis of Occupational Change and Departures from the Labor Force: Evidence of the Reasons Teacher Quit [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Todd R. Stinebrickner Journal of Human Resources. 2002. Vol. 37 . No. 1. P. 192-216.
This article deals with two problems: the timing of exits from the teaching profession and the reasons for these exits. Approximately 67 % of exiting female teachers leave the work force altogether. The presence of a newborn child is the single most important determinant of exits for females. The paper discusses why studies of quit behavior that simply include a person's total number of children may fail to capture the true importance of fertility behavior on a female's quit decision. It is also examined in this paper the return rates of departing teachers and compares the exit behavior of teachers to that of nonteachers.
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2004Kenneth Miller Employee Relations. 1990. Vol. 12. No. 2.
Canadian labour legislation is not simply a pale imitation of that of the United States. In fact, Canada's labour laws possess a number of unique and original features which distinguishes them from those stipulated by the United States Labor Relations Act. These basic features are examined and their origins traced, with particular emphasis on the provisions laid out by the Ontario Labour Relations Act, the Labour Code for Canada's largest province.
Are Shirking and Leisure Substitutable? An Empirical Test of Efficiency Wages Based on Urban Economic Theory [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 28-10-2007Stephen L. Ross, Yves Zenou Department of Economics University of Connecticut:Working papers. 2006. No. 2006-21.
Recent theoretical work has examined the spatial distribution of unemployment using the efficiency wage model as the mechanism by which unemployment arises in the urban economy. This paper extends the standard efficiency wage model in order to allow for behavioral substitution between leisure time at home and effort at work. In equilibrium, residing at a location with a long commute affects the time available for leisure at home and therefore affects the trade-off between effort at work and risk of unemployment. This model implies an empirical relationship between expected commutes and labor market outcomes, which is tested using the Public Use Microdata sample of the 2000 U.S. Decennial Census. The empirical results suggest that efficiency wages operate primarily for blue collar workers, i.e. workers who tend to be in occupations that face higher levels of supervision. For this subset of workers, longer commutes imply higher levels of unemployment and higher wages, which are both consistent with shirking and leisure being substitutable.
Опубликовано на портале: 25-10-2007Xenia Matschke Public Choice. 2003. No. 114. P. 103-135.
In this article, the possibility of Nordhaus political wage cycles in the West German public services during 1961–1995 is investigated. Since wage negotiations are centralized, one might expect a systematically higher wage increase shortly before a federal election. A regression of wage increases from 30 consecutive public sector pay contracts is run on an election variable and several additional explanatory variables. The null of no election influence is rejected for worker wage increases. The estimated increase in wages due to an imminent election is predicted to be in the range of 2.5 to 3 percentage points.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007Daron K. Acemoglu, Jörn-Steffen Pischke Economic Journal. 1999. Vol. 109. No. 453. P. 112-42.
In this paper, the authors survey noncompetitive theories of training. With competitive labor markets, firms never pay for investments in general training, whereas when labor markets are imperfect, firm-sponsored training arises as an equilibrium phenomenon. The authors discuss a variety of evidence that supports the predictions of noncompetitive theories and they draw some tentative policy conclusions from these models.
Beyond Incentive Pay: Insiders' Estimates of the Value of Complementary Human Resource Management Practices [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007Kathryn L. Shaw, Casey Ichniowski Journal of Economic Perspectives. 2003. Vol. 17. No. 1. P. 155-180.
Do human resource management (HRM) practices, such as incentive pay, teamwork, training, and careful screening practices, raise productivity, and if so, under what conditions does productivity rise? Recently, this question has been a central focus in organizational and personnel economics. We emphasize the value of a new research approach--an approach we label "insider econometrics"--that is aimed going deep inside businesses to obtain data and insights into the ways in which HRM practices affect specific production processes. We conclude that sets of complementary HRM practices appear to raise performance, but that some firms, such as those that make complex products or those that are starting up brand new facilities, benefit more from these practices.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-09-2003Jude Browne, Simon Deakin, Frank Wilkinson
This article throws some light to the links between the economic notion of 'capabilities' and the judicial concept of social rights. The Authors begin by revisiting TH Marshall's classic analysis of social rights and their ambiguous relationship to the market. J. Browne et al examine how far Amartya Sen's Capabilities Approach provides a framework for locating social rights within a market setting. They argue that Sen's non-dogmatic, context-orientated approach to defining the meaning of capabilities offers a viable way forward for thinking about the current tension between market rights and social rights in the European Union. This argument is illustrated by reference to the role played by mechanisms of corporate social responsibility in promoting gender equality.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007Daron K. Acemoglu American Economic Review. 1999. Vol. 89. No. 5. P. 1259-1278.
I present a model where firms decide what types of jobs to create and then search for suitable workers. When there are few skilled workers and the skilled-unskilled productivity gap is small, firms create a single type of job and recruit all workers. An increase in the proportion of skilled workers or skill-biased technical change can create a qualitative change in the composition of jobs, increasing the demand for skills, wage inequality, and unemployment. I provide some evidence that there has been a change in the composition of jobs in the United States during the past two decades.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-09-2003Jacob Mincer
Skill differentials in wages declined in the 1970's and rose in the 1980's, but aggregate wage inequality grew throughout the period. This divergence remains a puzzle in recent studies of U.S. wage inequality. In this paper the sometimes divergent paths of intergroup and intra-group inequality are explained by the human capital approach.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-10-2007Jane Humphries World Bank Economic Review. 2003. Vol. 17. No. 2. P. 175 - 196.
This article overviews the extent and settings of child labor in Western Europe and the United States in the past. Historians must rely on a quantitative record that is patchy and difficult to interpret. As a result, it may not be possible to say with confidence whether the era of proto-industry or the early factories saw the high-water mark of child labor, and the nature and time path of decline remains debated. Nonetheless, broad trends emerge that put the experience of today's poor countries into historical perspective and provide an empirical backdrop for the analysis in the second and third parts of the article, which seek to explain why child labor increased during industrialization and declined thereafter
Cognitive Ability and Paternalism [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 04-11-2004Saint-Paul Gilles IZA Discussion Papers. 2002. No. 609.
This paper analyses the welfare effects of price restrictions on private contracting in a world where agents have a limited cognitive ability. People compute the costs and benefits of entering a transaction with an error. The government knows the distribution of true costs and benefits as well as that of errors. By imposing constraints on transaction prices, the government eliminates some that are on average inefficient--because the price signals that one of the parties has typically grossly overestimated its benefit from participation. This policy may increase aggregate welfare even though some of the transactions being blocked are actually efficient. The paper also studies the extent to which the use of private consultants with sufficient intelligence by people with limited intelligence may dominate government regulation.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-09-2003Richard Blundell, Pierre-Andre Chiappori, Thierry Magnac, Costas Meghir
Описывается модель семейного предложения труда (вариант модели коллективного предложения труда, описанной в 1988 г. в работах П.- А. Чиаппори) для анализа индивидуальных потребительских предпочтений и распределения ресурсов внутри домохозяйства. Потребительские предпочтения и предпочтения в выборе статуса занятости (предлагать рабочую силу на рынке труда или не предлагать) рассматриваются не в качестве индивидуальных, а в качестве семейных. Авторы последовательно доказывают, что зная правила участия на рынке труда обоих супругов, можно определить их индивидуальные потребительские предпочтения и схему внутрисемейного распределения ресурсов. Дается пример использования модели на данных эмпирического исследования бездетных семейных пар в возрасте от 22 до 60 лет, проведенного в Англии в 1978-1993 гг. По мнению авторов, предложенная модель полезна также в исследованиях семейного потребления благ и домашнего производства.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-09-2003Walter Block International Journal of Social Economics. 1996. Vol. 23. No. 1. P. 6-16.
Freeman's critics of the economics profession is based on the ground that it has improperly accepted the philosophy of laissez-faire capitalism in five different realms: economic development, unionism and minimum wage laws, socialist central planning versus decentralized markets, military dictatorships and income inequality, and the benefits of economic progress. Attempts to defend the view that the free enterprise analysis in these five different areas can withstand Freemans criticisms.