Всего статей в данном разделе : 301
Culture and the Labor Market [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2002Siobhan Austen Review of Social Economy. 2000. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 505-521.
This paper explores the relationship between culture and labor market behavior. An attempt is made to clarify, from an economic perspective, the meaning of culture; to discuss the importance of cultural studies in the economic analysis of the labor market; and to outline the major theoretical issues that are associated with adopting a cultural perspective on economic behavior in the labor market.
Опубликовано на портале: 05-01-2003J.A. Tipton Journal of Bioeconomics. 2001. Vol. 3. No. 1. P. 51-55.
In this paper, author explores the way in which Aristotle seems to appeal to certain principles of economicsmost notably, the division and combination of laborin describing and attempting to explain certain biological phenomena. He uses examples recently employed in the bioeconomics literature and discuss how Aristotle uses similar examples in similar ways.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Lars Calmfors, Anders Forslund, Maria Hemstrom
The Swedish experiences of the 1990s provide a unique example of how large-scale active labour market programmes (ALMPs) have been used as a means to fight high unemployment. This paper discusses the mechanisms through which ALMPs affect (un)employment and surveys the empirical studies of the effects of ALMPs in Sweden. The main conclusions are: (i) there is hardly any evidence for a positive effect on matching efficiency; (ii) there are some indications of positive effects on labour force participation; (iii) subsidised employment seems to cause displacement of regular employment, whereas this appears not to be the case for labour market training; (iv) it is unclear whether or not ALMPs raise aggregate wage pressure in the economy; (v) in the 1990s, training programmes seem not to have enhanced the employment probabilities of participants, whereas some forms of subsidised employment seem to have had such effects; and (vi) youth programmes seem to have caused substantial displacement effects at the same time as the gains for participants appear uncertain. On the whole, ALMPs have probably reduced open unemployment, but also reduced regular employment. The overall policy conclusion is that ALMPs of the scale used in Sweden in the 1990s are not an efficient means of employment policy. To be effective, ALMPs should be used on a smaller scale. There should be a greater emphasis on holding down long-term unemployment in general and a smaller emphasis on youth programmes. ALMPs should not be used as a means to renew unemployment benefit eligibility.
Does School Quality Matter? Returns to Education and the Characteristics of Public Schools in the United States [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2003David Card, Alan B. Krueger Journal of Political Economy. 1992. Vol. 100. No. 1. P. 1-40.
This paper estimates the effects of school quality--measured by the pupil/teacher ratio, average term length, and relative teacher pay--on the rate of return to education for men born between 1920 and 1949. Using earnings data from the 1980 census, we find that men who were educated in states with higher-quality schools have a higher return to additional years of schooling. Rates of return are also higher for individuals from states with better-educated teachers and with a higher fraction of female teachers. Holding constant school quality measures, however, we find no evidence that parental income or education affects average state-level rates of return.
Does Unemployment Cause Future Unemployment? Definitions, Questions and Answers from a Continuous Time Model of Heterogeneity and State Dependence. [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-06-2007James Joseph Heckman, George J. Borjas Economica. 1980. Vol. 47. No. 187. P. 247-83.
Recent research demonstrates that, the greater the number of previous spells of unemployment and the longer their duration, the more likely is the event that an individual will be unemployed at a point in time. Two explanations have been advanced to interpret this finding. The first is rooted in economic theory; the second is based solely on statistical considerations.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-10-2004Irena Grosfeld, Claudia Senik-Leygonie, Thierry Verdier, Станислав О. Колеников, Елена А. Пальцева William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series. 1999. No. 246.
This paper proposes an explanation of the puzzling coexistence of elements of inertia and dynamism on the Russian labour market using a segmentation model. Risk averse workers are differentiated according to their productivity. They face a trade-off between wages and access to social services provided by the firm. The most productive workers leave their initial firm, contract on the spot labour market, and concentrate in the best performing firms. The model provides a possible interpretation of wage arrears which can be viewed as an element of an implicit contract between firms and less productive workers. We test some of the predictions of the model using a panel dataset containing 13,410 firms, for 1993-1997.
Опубликовано на портале: 26-10-2004Björn Gustafsson, Mats Johansson Works of Department of Social Work. 1996. Vol. 3. No. 1.
The development of earnings inequality and the earnings gender gap is analysed among full-time, full-year workers in Sweden using an additively decomposable inequality index. Earnings inequality is found to first decrease then increase and the earnings gender gap is found to move similarly. The results show that the changed earnings gap has some importance for the changed inequality. However, most of the changes were due to changes in inequality within the categories male and female. Between one tenth and one fifth of the inequality in particular segments of the labour market would be eliminated if its gender gap were to be totally eliminated. If the gender gap were to be eliminated in specific segments of the labour market, to what extent would earning inequality decrease?
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003Gerasimos T. Soldatos Labour. 2002. Vol. 13. No. 2. P. 433-443(11) .
An argument connecting human capital theory with the weak version of the signaling hypothesis, is advanced initially. It is an argument that helps methodologically the derivation of a work-incentives view of the complementarity between human capital theory and the strong version of the signaling theory. This view implies in turn that work incentives have only an income effect, which emerges as the solution to a moral hazard problem concerning the disclosure of productivity-augmenting capabilities to the employer. Thus, it is concluded that policy-induced disincentives, working against this effect and involving perhaps a substitution effect, too, would have serious repercussions on the productivity of labor unless employees and employers take measures to counteract the disincentives.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-11-2004Marco Francesconi, Edmund S. Phelps, Gylfi Zoega, J. Michael Orszag ISER working papers. 1999. No. 1999-02.
We show how changes in the educational composition of the labour force affect both the level and the behaviour over time of aggregate unemployment series. We also demonstrate that if it had not been for such changes, the U.S. unemployment series would look European since the within-group unemployment series all have that same appearance. We derive a natural-rate model of unemployment for two education groups, providing microfoundations for inter-group differences in wages and unemployment, and evaluate its plausibility in light of microeconomic evidence.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2003Edward Lazear Journal of Political Economy. 1977. Vol. 85. No. 3. P. 569-598.
This paper attempts to determine whether the relationship between education and income results because schooling allows individuals to earn higher income or because higher income individuals purchase more of all normal goods, including schooling. Education is treated as a joint product, producing potential wage gains and utility simultaneously. The framework permits estimation of the rental price of a unit of education, net of consumption effects. The major finding is that education does causally produce income. By moving from 0 years of schooling to 12 years, the mean individual approximately triples his wealth. More surprising is that education is a bad." Individuals stop short of acquiring the wealth-maximizing level of education because of the disutility associated with school attendance.
Опубликовано на портале: 01-09-2003Andreu Mas-Colell, Pradeep Dubey, Martin Shubik
The paper investigates the conditions under which an abstractly given market game will have the property that if there is a continuum of traders then every noncooperative equilibrium is Walrasian. In other words, we look for a general axiomatization of Cournots well-known result. Besides, some convexity, continuity, and nondegeneracy hypothesis, the crucial axioms are: anonymity (i.e., the names of traders are irrelevant to the market) and aggregation (i.e. the net trade received by a trader depends only on his own action and the mean action of all traders). It is also shown that the same axioms do not guarantee efficiency is there is only a finite number of traders. Some examples are discussed and a notion of strict noncooperative equilibrium for anonymous games is introduced.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Marthe Nyssens, Bruno Van der Linden
This paper is motivated by empirical observations on popular-economy firms (PEFs) in the informal sector of Santiago de Chile. These are labor-managed firms embedded in popular milieu where cooperation between their members plays a central role. This paper develops a (partial equilibrium) microeconomic theory of PEFs. First, it endogeneizes the level of cooperation between the workers. Second, it develops a static and a dynamic model to analyze whether embeddedness influences the behavior of the PEF. Embeddedness is assumed to be captured by three different characteristics suggested by the empirical observations. Most of them influence the employment and income levels in the PEF.
Employment equity and minority legislation in the UK after two decades: a review (Обзор законодательства Великобритании двух последних десятилетий о трудовом равенстве и правах меньшинств) [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2004Peter J. Sloane, Daniel Mackay International Journal of Manpower. 1997. Vol. 18. No. 7. P. 597-626.
Examines employment equity legislation, initially introduced in the UK during the 1970s, along with separate legislation covering sex, race, religion and disability, together with separate enforcement bodies, and separate geographical arrangements in Britain and in Northern Ireland. Notes the role of European Community Law which takes precedence over UK law and increasingly dictates legislation changes. Claims that the period since the 1970s has witnessed growing levels of unemployment, along with a focus on de-regulation of labour markets. Most British empirical work focuses on explaining earnings differentials using the standard Mincer human capital model with comparative neglect of employment equality issues. The fundamental question is to what extent has employment equity legislation been successful in removing labour market discrimination against minority groups. Uses a cross-section of data from the 1994 labour force survey to attempt to explain differences in employability across various groups and to analyse the degree of occupational segregation across these same groups which remain after nearly 20 years of experience of employment equity legislation. Reviews the legislation and then estimates first, logit equations to explain employability and second, ordered probit equations to explain occupational attainment, in each case decomposing the results in order to estimate the proportion of the differential which may be explained by "discrimination".
Equal opportunity? The role of legislation and public policies in women's employment in China (Равные возможности? Роль законодательства и публичной политики в обеспечении трудовой занятости женщин в Китае) [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2004Fang Lee Cooke Women in Management Review. 2001. Vol. 16. No. 7.
Reviews the positive role of the state in promoting women's employment since the founding of Communist China in 1949. Identifies patterns of gender inequality which exist throughout the process of employment such as recruitment and retirement. Against this backcloth, analyses major reasons for the occurrence of this gender discrimination, which range from inadequate social security for childbearing and ineffective legislative monitoring mechanisms to gender bias in the employment legislation itself. Concludes that recent radical economic and social reforms in China have disrupted the context within which a level of equal opportunity has been achieved in the past few decades and demands a new legal framework under which greater equality between men and women in employment can be achieved.
Establishing the Priority of Labor [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002G.Paul Peterson, James A. Buss International Journal of Social Economics. 1998. Vol. 25. No. 1112. P. 1699-1710(12) .
Pope John Paul II and the social teachings of the Catholic Church emphasize that labor should not be treated as an instrument in the production process. Rather justice requires that labor be given priority over capital. The reasons for this priority are explained. Several labor market conditions are examined to show that generally the priority of labor over capital does not exist. These conditions include unemployment, unjust wages, poverty, suppression of union activities, lack of participatory management, and discrimination against women and foreign workers. The works of Pope John Paul II are examined to discern the causes of these injustices and possible remedies for them. The roles played by the indirect employer, structures of evil, the ownership of economic resources, as well as the error of economism are considered.