Всего статей в данном разделе : 301
Опубликовано на портале: 04-11-2004Hedwig Beitrag Prey, Bernd Fitzenberger Oxford Economic Papers. 2000. No. 52. P. 497-520.
Поддержка профессиональной переподготовки стала очень важным инструментом политики на рынке труда в Восточной Германии. В данной работе делается попытка оценить влияние профессиональной переподготовки, финансируемой за счет доходов общественного сектора вне фирм, на заработную плату и занятость. После описания развития рынка труда в Восточной Германии, авторы переходят к описанию проблемы оценки. После этого описывается теоретическая модель участия в профессиональной переподготовке, занятости и заработной плате. Принимая во внимание эффекты отбора до участия, исследование в основном выявляет положительное, хотя и только частично значимое влияние в длительном периоде на занятость или заработную плату.
Explaining Rising Wage Inequality: Explorations with a Dynamic General Equilibrium Model of Labor Earnings with Heterogeneous Agents [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 05-02-2007John H. Cochrane, Christopher R. Taber, Lance Lochner NBER Working Paper Series. 1998. No. 6384.
This paper develops and estimates an overlapping generations general equilibrium model of labor earnings, skill formation and physical capital accumulation with heterogeneous human capital. The model analyzes both schooling choices and post-school on-the-job investment in skills in a framework in which different schooling levels index different skills. A key insight in the model is that accounting for the distinction between skill prices and measured wages is important for analyzing the changing wage structure, as they often move in different directions. New methods are developed and applied to estimate the demand for unobserved human capital and to determine the substitution relationships in aggregate technology among skills and capital. We estimate skill-specific human capital accumulation equations that are consistent with the general equilibrium predictions of the model. Using our estimates, we find that a model of skill-biased technical change with a trend estimated from our aggregate technology is consistent with the central feature of rising wage equality measured by the college-high school wage differential and by the standard deviation of log earnings over the past 15 years. Immigration of low skill workers contributes little to rising wage inequality. When the model is extended to account for the enlarged cohorts of the Baby Boom, we find that the same parameter estimates of the supply functions for human capital that are used the explain the wage history of the last 15 years also explain the last 35 years of wage inequality as documented by Katz and Murphy (1992).
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003Andres Erosa, Luisa Fuster, Diego Restuccia Review of Economic Dynamics. 2002. Vol. 5. No. 4. P. 856-891.
A striking observation of the U.S. and other labor markets is the weak position of women in terms of job attachment, employment, and earnings relative to men. We develop a model of fertility and labor market decisions to study the impact of fertility on gender differences in labor turnover, employment, and wages. In our framework, individuals search for jobs and accumulate general (experience) and specific (tenure) human capital when they work. They can also increase their wage by moving to a job of higher quality. Labor market decisions (e.g., job acceptance and job mobility) may differ across genders: females that give birth may decide to interrupt their labor market attachment in order to enjoy the value of staying at home with their children. The model economy is successfully calibrated to match aggregate statistics in terms of fertility, employment, and wages. We find that fertility decisions generate important gender differences in turnover rates, with long lasting effects in employment and wages. These differences in labor turnover account for almost all the U.S. gender wage gap that is attributed to labor market experience by Blau and Kahn (2000, Journal of Labor Economics 15(1), 142). The model also implies a very small role of tenure capital in accounting for wage differences between males and females (gender gap), and between females with and without children (family gap).
Опубликовано на портале: 30-01-2003Masahiro Abe, Souichi Ohta Journal of the Japanese and International Economies. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 4. P. 437-464.
Throughout the 1990s, and particularly in the mid- to late-1990s, the Japanese employment situation went from bad to worse. We investigate the causes of rising unemployment in Japan, using data on individual workers from the Special Survey of the Labor Force between 1988 and 1999. This research focuses on the effect of labor market segmentation by industry on labor flows. Our findings reveal that unemployment in the construction industry and, more recently, in the service industry has contributed greatly to the national unemployment rate. We also find that most successful job transfers occur within the same industry, even though workers may experience some periods of unemployment. Finally, our results show that labor market conditions in each industry affect the probability that a worker will fall into unemployment as well as the probability that an unemployed worker will find new employment. These findings suggest that the Japanese labor market is segmented by industry and this segmentation contributed to the worsening unemployment in Japan.
Food Protection for Sale [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 25-10-2007Rigoberto A. Lopez, Xenia Matschke University of Connecticut, Department of Economics Working Paper. 2005. No. 2005-13R.
This article tests the Protection for Sale (PFS) model using detailed data from U.S. food processing industries from 1978 to 1992 under alternative import demand specifications. All empirical results support the PFS model predictions and previous empirical work qualitatively. Although welfare weights are very sensitive to import demand specification, a surprising result is that we obtain weights between 2.6 and 3.6 for domestic welfare using import slopes or elasticities derived from domestic demand and supply functions. In contrast, results based on import slopes or elasticities from directly specified import demands (including the Armington model) yield the usual, unrealistically large estimates for the domestic welfare weight. We contend that the latter empirical paradox arises mainly because the explanatory variables tend to be extremely large for industries with low import ratios and/or low estimated elasticities or slopes resulting from relatively volatile import prices. The results with derived import parameters point to a much stronger role of campaign contributions within the PFS model than previously found. They also suggest that the commonly-used Armington estimates may not be appropriate for estimating the PFS model.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-10-2003Dong-Sook S. Gills Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 2002. Vol. 581. No. 1. P. 106-120.
Globalization of production represents a new organization of production processes, accompanied by technological advances and neoliberal ideology, which emphasizes the separation of politics from economics. Emanating from these changes, labor relations are being altered, in particular by world trends of the flexibilization and feminization of labor. Women's labor constitutes a foundation of the international competitiveness of most Asian countries. The forces of economic globalization expose women in Asia to diverse mechanisms of exploitation in complex ways. There is no single pattern but rather an array of complex ways in which gender hierarchy, national capital, foreign capital, and the state negotiate and adapt to globalization. Women's social movements have been part of the social actions that have strengthened the counter-hegemonic movements against capital-led economic globalization. Women's labor is an important social force that can resist neoliberal global trends and contribute to an alternative globalization based on democratization and greater social inclusion.
Group Wage Curves [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 04-11-2004Timothy J. Bartik W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research: Staff Working Papers. 2002. No. 00-63.
Using panel data on U.S. MSAs, this paper estimates how a typical MSAs wages of different demographic groups, and prices, are affected by overall MSA unemployment, the distribution of unemployment among different groups, and national prices and wages. MSA unemployment has strong effects on MSA wages and prices, but the distribution of unemployment among different groups has weak effects on wages and prices. Using these estimates, simulations show that targeting high-unemployment groups for unemployment reductions will not reduce wage or price inflation pressures. The estimates also show that the effects of MSA unemployment on prices and disadvantaged groups wages are greater (in absolute value) at lower unemployment rates. As a result, simulations using these estimates suggest that national unemployment can be reduced with less inflationary pressures by targeting unemployment reductions at MSAs with high unemployment.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-09-2003Amparo Castelly, Rafael Domenech The Economic Journal. 2002. Vol. 112. No. 478. P. 187-200.
This paper provides new measures of human capital inequality for a broad panel of countries. Taking attainment levels from Barro and Lee (2001), we compute Gini coefficients and the distribution of education by quintiles for 108 countries over five-year intervals from 1960 to 2000. Using this new cross-country data on human capital inequality two main conclusions are obtained. First, most countries in the world have tended to reduce the inequality in human capital distribution. Second, human capital inequality measures provide more robust results than income inequality measures in the estimation of standard growth and investment equations.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Robert Drago, Gerald T. Garvey
Recent advances in incentive theory stress the multi- dimensional nature of agent effort and particularly the case where workers can improve the performance of others through `helping' efforts. This paper provides a simple model of an agent's incentive to help depending on the compensation package, the cost of monitoring, and the allocation of tasks. We then analyze the determinants of reported helping efforts within workgroups for a sample of Australian workers. As expected, workers are less likely to help one another when promotion incentives are strong. Subsidiary results are consistent with our `contest' interpretation of this finding and not consistent with `gift exchange' or other variants of the efficiency wage hypothesis. Also as predicted, a wide range of job tasks amplifies the negative effect of promotional incentives, while monitoring of help mitigates the negative effect. We find an unexpected positive effect of piece rates on helping effort for long-term employees which we show is consistent with repeated game effects between workers. These considerations do not overturn our findings about the effects of tournaments.
Опубликовано на портале: 16-11-2004Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo NBER Working Paper Series. 2000. w7793.
This paper describes the correlations between inequality and the growth rates in cross-country data. Using non-parametric methods, we show that the growth rate is an inverted U-shaped function of net changes in inequality: Changes in inequality (in any direction) are associated with reduced growth in the next period. The estimated relationship is robust to variations in control variables and estimation methods. This inverted U-curve is consistent with a simple political economy model, although, as we point out, efforts to interpret this model causally run into difficult identification problems. We show that this non-linearity is sufficient to explain why previous estimates of the relationship between the level of inequality and growth are so different from one another.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-10-2004Tito Boeri, Katherine Terrell World Bank Policy Research Working Papers. 2001.
The transition process from planned economies to market-oriented economies involves a substantial reallocation of labor. In the planned economies employment was typically concentrated in heavy industry, away from consumers preferences. A strong small business sector was lacking, and private initiative had been tolerated almost exclusively in agriculture. Patterns of foreign trade were determined by economic planners within the framework of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. In the process of transition, employment had to flow out of such sectors as state-owned heavy industry into the new private, mostly small-scale, business sector. The success of transition in a given country can be assessed in part by how well it has addressed the problem of reallocating labor.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-10-2004Timothy J. Bartik W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research: Staff Working Papers. 2002. No. 02-78.
By increasing the labor supply of welfare recipients, welfare reform may reduce wages and increase unemployment among other less-educated groups. These "spillover effects" are difficult to estimate because welfare caseloads decrease in response to improvements in the economy, which leads caseload reductions to be associated with improvements in labor market outcomes. This paper corrects for the endogeneity of caseloads by using instruments that reflect policy. The estimates suggest that welfare reform has significant spillover effects: welfare reform reduces employment of male high school dropouts, and reduces wages of single mothers and male high school dropouts.
Опубликовано на портале: 16-11-2004Robert J. Gordon NBER Working Paper Series. 2000. w7752.
This paper assesses the standard data on output, labor input, and capital input, which imply one big wave' in multi-factor productivity (MFP) growth for the United States since 1870. The wave-like pattern starts with slow MFP growth in the late 19th century, then an acceleration peaking in 1928-50, and then a deceleration to a slow rate after 1972 that returns to the poor performance of 1870-1891. A counterpart of the standard data is a mysterious doubling in the ratio of output to capital input when the postwar era is compared with 1870-1929. Three types of measurement adjustments are applied to the standard input data. Following the lead of Denison and Jorgenson-Griliches, adjustments for the changing composition (or quality') of labor and capital, currently published by the BLS back to 1948, are estimated for 1870-1948. These composition adjustments take into account the shifting mix of the labor force along the dimensions of education and age-sex composition, and of the capital stock between equipment and structures. Further adjustments are made to capital input data to allow retirement to vary with gross investment rather than to follow a fixed pattern depending only on age, and to add types of capital owned by the government that are particularly productive in the private sector. A new MFP series taking account of all these adjustments grows more slowly throughout, and the big wave' phenomenon is both flatter and extends back further in time to 1891. However, there is no solution to the post-1972 productivity slowdown, and in the new data MFP growth during 1972-96 proceeds at a pathetic 0.1 percent per year. A byproduct of the measurement adjustments is to solve completely the previous puzzle of the jump in the output-capital ratio; in the new data this ratio is actually lower in 1996 than in 1870. The primary substantive explanation for the big wave lies in the timing of inventions. MFP growth during the big wave' period benefited from the diffusion of four great clusters of inventions that dwarf today's information technology revolution in their combined importance. A complementary hypothesis is that the partial closing of American labor markets to immigration and of American goods markets to imports during the big wave period gave an artificial and temporary boost to real wages which fed back into boosting productivity growth, followed by a reopening that contributed to the post-1972 productivity slowdown.
Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2007Peter Haan DIW Berlin Discussion Papers. 2007. No. 669.
In the year 2000, the German government passed the most ambitious tax reform in post-war German history aiming at a significant tax relief for households. One central aim of this tax reform was to improve work incentives and, thereby, foster employment. In this paper, I estimate an intertemporal discrete choice model of female labor supply that allows to analyze the behavioral effects of the tax reform on the labor supply of married and cohabiting women over time. Using the Markov chain property, I analyze the dynamics of labor supply behavior and derive the short- and long-run labor supply effects of the tax reform.
Опубликовано на портале: 05-02-2007Joseph G. Altonji Journal of Political Economy. 1986. Vol. 94. No. 3. P. 176-215.
The sensitivity of the supply of labor to intertemporal variation in the wage is an important issue in macroeconomics, the analysis of social security and pensions, and the study of life-cycle patterns of work. This paper explores two approaches to the measurement of intertemporal substitution that have appeared in the literature. The first approach is to use consumption to control for wealth and unobserved expectations about future wages in the labor supply equation. The second approach is to estimate a first-difference equation for hours in which labor supply from the previous period serves as a control for wealth and wage expectations. The results indicate that the intertemporal substitution elasticity for married men is positive but small.