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Экономика труда изучает трудовые отношения, условия формирования и использования трудового потенциала (подробнее...)

Статьи

Всего статей в данном разделе : 301

Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002
Lisa M. Powell Journal of Human Resources. 2002.  Vol. 37. No. 1. P. 106-128. 
This paper examines the impact of childcare prices and wage rates on the joint employment and childcare mode (center, sitter, relative, and husband) choice decisions of married mothers by estimating both a mixed logit and universal logit choice model. Data are drawn from the 1988 Canadian National Child Care Survey and the 1988 Labour Market Activity Survey. The estimation results show that wages have a positive impact on the probability of choosing any of the working states and that childcare prices for center, sitter, and relative care reduce the probability of working and using each respective mode of care. Sensitivity analyses reveal that the wage elasticity for employment is fairly robust across model specifications, while the own-price elasticity of childcare is sensitive to model specification, differing identifying assumptions in the estimation of childcare price equations, and sample selection. The simulation results show that differences exist in the degree to which government subsidies in the form of wage subsidies, targeted childcare subsidies, or unconditional childcare subsidies, impact on labor supply decisions and decisions to substitute across different modes of care by those mothers already in the labor market.
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002
John J. Piderit International Journal of Social Economics. 1998.  Vol. 25. No. 1112. P. 1684-1698. 
In his economic writings John Paul II asserts the importance of placing the human person at the center of deliberations concerning the economy. Neoclassical economists show that free trade enhances the efficiency of society. However, a byproduct of free trade is greater competition, as countries and firms adjust to the introduction of new products and processes of production, made possible through technological innovation. Neoclassical economists assume that workers will move to where new jobs develop. In many cases, however, this means that they impose burdens on their family and become more distant from friends. Each human person establishes bonds with other persons; through such family bonds of friendship a person becomes more human. This essay explores the tension between greater productive efficiency and a desire to maintain and enhance friendships. Never merely objective analysts, neoclassical economists have strong convictions concerning dynamic efficiency, while consumers have convictions about friendship. These two sets of convictions have to be reconciled. In order for policy makers to assess the true costs of free trade, mobility measures must be developed, and the neoclassical model must be modified to incorporate geographical stability as a significant factor for consumers.
Опубликовано на портале: 04-11-2004
Martin N. Baily, Eric J. Bartelsman, John Haltiwanger Review of Economics and Statistics. 2001.  Vol. 83. No. 1. P. 420-433. 
A longstanding issue in empirical economics is the behavior of average labor productivity over the business cycle. This paper provides new insights into the cyclicality of aggregate labor productivity by examining the cyclical behavior of productivity at the plant level as well as the role of reallocation across plants over the cycle. We find that plant-level productivity is even more procyclical than aggregate productivity, because short-run reallocation yields a countercyclical contribution to labor productivity. At the plant level, we find that cyclicality of productivity varies systematically with long-run employment growth. Over the course of the cycle, plants that are long-run downsizers exhibit significantly greater procyclicality of productivity than do long-run upsizers. When we control for the direction of a cyclical shock, we find that the fall in productivity from an adverse cyclical shock for long-run downsizers is significantly larger in magnitude than is the fall in productivity from an equivalent adverse cyclical shock for long-run upsizers. We argue that these findings raise questions about one of the most popular explanations of procyclical productivity: changing factor utilization over the cycle.
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Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2004
John Gennard Employee Relations. 1998.  Vol. 20. No. 1.
Examines the changes in the UK legal framework, surrounding the employment relations system, to be introduced by the new Labour Government elected in May 1997. Discusses how these changes are designed to improve competitiveness, establish fairness at work, provide minimum employment standards and encourage a more flexible workforce.
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Опубликовано на портале: 19-11-2004
Anthony B. Atkinson
This paper is concerned with an issue that is both an intellectual puzzle and of key importance for contemporary policy-making. The issue can be simply stated. Are labour market reforms, and scaling back the welfare state, complementary or substitute economic policies? Do countries need to do both, or can they choose? If there is a choice, how should the balance be struck?
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Опубликовано на портале: 05-11-2004
Владимир Исакович Герчиков, Екатерина Юрьевна Калакутина, М.В. Кошман, L. Truth
Статья посвящена рассмотрению истории становления современных трудовых отношений на предприятиях России. В качестве объекта исследования были выбраны семь крупных предприятия Сибири, работающих в разных отраслях народного хозяйства. В начале работы авторы описывают ситуацию, которая имело место на предприятиях перед развалом СССР, в дальнейшем этот материал будет использован для акцентирования внимания читателя на причинах современного типа отношений работник-работодатель. Безработица и падение уровня заработной платы рассматриваются как тотальная реакция предприятий на экономические кризисы 90-х. Обращается особое внимание на деятельность профсоюзов, являвшихся, по мнению авторов, важным фактором становления современных трудовых отношений. В заключении, в статье описывается отношения менеджер-работник и дается прогноз развития отношений для различных профессионально-возрастных групп работников и руководителей различного уровня.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2002
B. McKenna Asia Pacific Business Review. 2000.  Vol. 7. Special Issue 1 . P. 71-104. 
This contribution deconstructs globalization using a critical discourse method. Taking Australia as its case study, the essay argues that globalization must be seen within the context of hypercapitalism and the unchallenged hegemony of neo-classical economics and neo-liberal politics. The Australian experience, it is argued, shows that trade unions should refuse to be incorporated into this hegemony presented as technocratic alchemy. In fact, deconstruction reveals that globalist claims rest upon highly contestable tautological claims. This essay briefly describes Australian political economy 1983-96 when the Labor government, in an 'accord' with the trade union movement, embraced free-market globalism; critically deconstructs the ideological features that underlie the technocratic claims made about the benefits of globalization; and argues for a resurgent unionism and traditional labourism that dialectically challenges the inequitable and destructive features of contemporary hypercapitalism.
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Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002
Judith K. Hellerstein, David Neumark, Kenneth R. Troske Journal of Human Resources. 2002.  Vol. 37 . No. 2 . P. 353-380. 
The authors report new evidence on the existence of sex discrimination in wages and whether competitive market forces act to reduce or eliminate discrimination. Specifically, they use plant- and firm-level data to examine the relationships between profitability, growth and ownership changes, product market power, and the sex composition of a plant's or firm's workforce. Their strongest finding is that among plants with high levels of product market power, those that employ relatively more women are more profitable. No such relationship exists for plants with apparently low levels of market power. This is consistent with sex discrimination in wages in the short run in markets where plants have product market power. The authors also examine evidence on the longer-run effects of market forces on discrimination, asking whether discriminatory employers with market power are punished over time through lower growth than non-discriminatory employers, or whether discriminatory employers are bought out by non-discriminators. There was found little evidence that this occurs over a five-year period, as growth and ownership changes for plants with market power are generally not significantly related to the sex composition of a plant's workforce.
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Опубликовано на портале: 19-10-2004
George J. Borjas, Valerie A. Ramey NBER Working Paper Series. 2000.  No. 7799.
This paper examines the link between interindustry wage differentials and subsequent growth of industry variables such as employment, GDP and labor productivity. We find that industries that paid higher than average wages in 1959 experienced significantly lower employment growth and GDP growth in the subsequent 30 to 40 years, while at the same time experiencing higher-than-average growth in the capital-labor ratio and in labor productivity. We argue that the evidence is best explained by a non-competitive model of the interindustry wage structure, as both firms and the market respond to the wage rigidity implied by the long-run persistence of the interindustry wage structure.
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Опубликовано на портале: 03-10-2003
Daron K. Acemoglu, Jörn-Steffen Pischke
Considering to Beckers theory of human capital it predicts that minimum wages should reduce training investments for affected workers because they prevent these workers from taking wage cuts necessary to finance training. In contrast, in noncompetitive labor markets, minimum wages tend to increase training of affected workers because they induce firms to train their unskilled employees. The Authors provide new estimates on the impact of the state and federal increases in the minimum wage between 1987 and 1992 on the training of low wage workers. They find no evidence that minimum wages reduce training, and little evidence that they tend to increase training. It is developed a hybrid model where minimum wages reduce the training investments of workers who were taking wage cuts to finance their training, while increasing the training of other workers. Finally, some evidence consistent with this hybrid model was made up.
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Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2004
Joseph A. Belizzi, Ronald W. Hasty Journal of Organizational Change Management. 2000.  Vol. 13. No. 5.
Presents the idea that the "Aubry" law context, which concerns the reorganization of working time, constitutes an encouragement to decentralize the collective negotiation. Introduced in June 1998, this mechanism represents an opportunity to observe innovative negotiation modes and the construct of organizations' models. These models aim to associate the principles of Taylorism with the increasing need for flexibility. Through negotiation cases, the authors observe the manner in which the social partners build satisfactory compromises regarding work and the organization of working time. Such processes show the ability of employees to participate in organizational constructs and their creativity. The empirical observations illustrate the debate on the renewal of the Taylorian approach for organizations. Historically, in France, the action of trade union organizations has been deeply rooted in the protest against the Taylorian model; today the union movement constitutes, in our understanding, one phase of professional relations in the reshaping process of the Taylorian model of organization.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007
Jörn-Steffen Pischke, Alan B. Krueger NBER Working Paper. 1997.  No. 6146.
This paper has three goals; first, to place U.S. job growth in international perspective by exploring cross-country differences in employment and population growth. This section finds that the U.S. has managed to absorb added workers -- especially female workers -- into employment at a greater rate than most countries. The leading explanation for this phenomenon is that the U.S. labor market has flexible wages and employment practices, whereas European labor markets are rigid. The second goal of the paper is to evaluate the labor market rigidities hypothesis. Although greater wage flexibility probably contributes to the U.S.'s comparative success in creating jobs for its population, the slow growth in employment in many European countries appears too uniform across skill groups to result from relative wage inflexibility alone. Furthermore, a great deal of labor market adjustment seems to take place at a constant real wage in the U.S. This leads to the third goal: to speculate on other explanations why the U.S. has managed to successfully absorb so many new entrants to the labor market. We conjecture that product market constraints contribute to the slow growth of employment in many countries.
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Опубликовано на портале: 22-09-2003
Richard Nahuis
Low skilled workers have been facing declining real wages during the 80s in the US, while high skilled workers gained in the same period. This decrease in the relative wage of the low skilled provoked a lively debate on the causes of the observed decline. A lot of academic authors have opposed to the popular view that trade with low wage countries caused the relative deterioration of low skilled workers. This paper addresses the central question, whether we can ignore the role for trade on the basis of existing literature. To answer this question, we first set forth basic trade theory. Next the theoretical basis for empirical validation is established, whereafter the empirical contributions of several authors are reviewed. Finally alternative explanations are assessed. On the basis of this survey we argue that the denial of a role for trade by a number of contributors to the debate is not convincing.
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Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2004
Alison Balchin Employee Relations. 1994.  Vol. 16. No. 7.
Draws on a small research study undertaken in the retail industry, providing a very timely consideration of the choices and circumstances of those who work on a part-time basis. Considers the reasons given by workers for choosing part-time work, the costs involved and the extent to which part-time workers are aware of these when making their decision. The research considers the role of trade unions in enhancing awareness of legal entitlements in view of the recent House of Lords ruling.
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Personnel Economics [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-06-2008
Edward Lazear №7-8, 9.. 2007.  № 13480.
In this review of the personnel economics literature, we introduce key topics of personnel economics, focus on some relatively new findings that have emerged since prior reviews of some or all of the personnel economics literature, and suggest open questions in personnel economics where future research can make valuable contributions to the literature. We explore five aspects of the employment relationship - incentives, matching firms with workers, compensation, skill development, and the organization of work - reviewing the main theories, empirical tests of those theories, and the open questions in each area.
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