Всего статей в данном разделе : 301
Опубликовано на портале: 03-10-2003Devajyoti Deka Journal of Urban Affairs. 2002. Vol. 24. No. 3. P. pp. 333-352.
In the context of recent welfare reform efforts, authors have examined strategies for attracting jobs to inner cities, dispersing innercity residents to suburban jobgrowth areas, and creating transportation connections between inner cities and suburban jobgrowth areas. However, little has been done to estimate the extent of potential commute of nonworkers who are expected to become active workers as a result of welfare reform. This study attempts to predict the extent of nonworkers commute by using modeling techniques employed in labor economics. Policy implications of the empirical findings are discussed and an observations of some further ways of thinking can be find in the conclusion.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003Devajyoti Deka Journal of Urban Affairs. 2002. Vol. 24. No. 3/4. P. 333-352.
In the context of recent welfare reform efforts, researchers have examined strategies for attracting jobs to inner cities, dispersing innercity residents to suburban jobgrowth areas, and creating transportation connections between inner cities and suburban jobgrowth areas. However, little has been done to estimate the extent of potential commute of nonworkers who are expected to become active workers as a result of welfare reform. This study attempts to predict the extent of nonworkers commute by using modeling techniques employed in labor economics. Data from the 1995 Nationwide Transportation Survey are utilized. Conforming to theoretical premises and logical expectations, I estimate that mean commute time of nonworkers is likely to be substantially lower than those currently working. Policy implications of the empirical findings are discussed.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-09-2003Devajyoti Deka Journal of Urban Affairs. 2002. Vol. 24. No. 3. P. 333-352.
Researchers have examined strategies for attracting jobs to inner cities, dispersing innercity residents to suburban jobgrowth areas, and creating transportation connections between inner cities and suburban jobgrowth areas. However, little has been done to estimate the extent of potential commute of nonworkers who are expected to become active workers as a result of welfare reform. This study attempts to predict the extent of nonworkers commute by using modeling techniques employed in labor economics. Data from the 1995 Nationwide Transportation Survey are utilized. Conforming to theoretical premises and logical expectations, the author estimates that mean commute time of nonworkers is likely to be substantially lower than those currently working. Policy implications of the empirical findings are discussed.
Опубликовано на портале: 16-11-2004Laurence M. Ball, Robert A. Moffitt NBER Working Paper Series. 2001. w8421.
We present a model in which workers' aspirations for wage increases adjust slowly to shifts in productivity growth. The model yields a Phillips curve with a new variable: the gap between productivity growth and an average of past wage growth. Empirically, this variable shows up strongly in the U.S. Phillips curve. Including it explains the otherwise puzzling shift in the unemployment- inflation tradeoff since 1995.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2003Murat F. Iyigun International Economic Review. 1999. Vol. 40. No. 3. P. 697 - 710.
This paper examines the role of public education in determining intergenerational economic mobility. It considers a model in which education is free and admission to schools is competitive. The results indicate that for mobility to increase during the process of development, the share of resources devoted to public education needs to be large enough to offset the relative advantage of having educated parents in academic attainment.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-06-2005Daniel S. Treisman, Владимир Ефимович Гимпельсон, Галина Алексеевна Монусова Экономическая социология. 2001. Т. 2. № 5. С. 21-47.
Public employment grew surprisingly fast in Russia during the 1990s, at a time when total employment was falling. Most of this growth occurred in the country's 89 regions, and rates varied among them. This paper seeks to explain this variation. Using panel data for 78 regions over 1992-1998 we test several hypotheses. We show that the increase in the share of public employment in total employment has been greatest where unemployment was highest and growing the fastest, in ethnically defined territorial units, and in regions which received larger federal transfers and loans. The paradoxical growth of public employment in Russia appears less a result of ignorant or irresolute central management than a perverse outgrowth of the competitive game of federal politics, in which regional governors use public sector workers as "hostages" to extract transfers.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-09-2003Jianguo Wang, Xiaokai Yang Journal of Comparative Economics. 1996. Vol. 23. No. 1. P. 20-37.
This article investigates the implications of pursuit of relative utility for the equilibrium level of division of labor and trade dependence. Jianguo Wang's ("Pursuit of Relative Economic Standing," Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Economics, Monash University, 1993) approach to modeling pursuit of relative economic standing is applied to Xiaokai Yang's framework with consumer-producers, economies of specialization, and transaction costs (Yang, Xiaokai, J. Develop. Econom. 34, 1-2:199-222, Nov. 1990) in order to investigate the relationship between the pursuit of relative utility, transaction efficiency, and the level of division of labor. It is found that a stronger desire for relative utility has positive productivity implications and positive effects on the development of the division of labor if it narrows the differential between preferences for different goods or if it reduces the desire for a variety of a person's productive activities. That is to say, the consumption of relative position may or may not generate positive effects, depending on specific conditions.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-06-2008Sherwin Rosen, Edward Lazear №7-8, 9.. 1981. Т. 89. № 5. С. 841-864.
This paper analyzes compensation schemes which pay according to an individual's ordinal rank in an organization rather than his output level. When workers are risk neutral, it is shown that wages based upon rank induce the same efficient allocation of resources as an incentive reward scheme based on individual output levels. Under some circumstances, risk-averse workers actually prefer to be paid on the basis of rank. In addition, if workers are heterogeneous inability, low-quality workers attempt to contaminate high-quality firms, resulting in adverse selection. However, if ability is known in advance, a competitive handicapping structure exists which allows all workers to compete efficiently in the same organization.
Relevance of Canadian labour law to US firms operating in Canada (Применимость канадского трудового права к американским фирмам, работающим в Канаде) [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2004Steven E. Abraham International Journal of Manpower. 1997. Vol. 18. No. 8.
As US firms expand into Canada, it becomes necessary for them to be aware of Canadian law governing labour and employment. Unlike what many might think, the laws in the two countries are substantially different. Further, the effects of these differences have been demonstrated empirically. Considers the differences between US and Canadian labour law in seven areas: certification procedures; first contract arbitration; new technologies; strike replacements; successorship; employee participation programmes and union security. Discusses the effects of the laws in these areas.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Bruce A. Rayton
The rent-sharing literature and the agency literature both predict a link between pay and performance. The rent-sharing literature relies on short-term market power to explain this link, and the agency literature bases its prediction on the importance of incentives in principal-agent relationships. Annual data from an unbalanced panel of U.S. manufacturing firms indicate that the performance-elasticity of average employee pay is approximately 0.127271 in small firms while it not significantly different from zero in large firms. The relative lack of incentive pay in the group of large firms demonstrates that the link between pay and performance evident in U.S. manufacturing firms is inconsistent with the exclusive truth of the rent-sharing hypothesis.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2003George Psacharopoulos, Harry Anthony Patrinos World Bank Policy Research Working Papers. 2002. No. 2881.
Returns to investment in education based on human capital theory have been estimated since the late 1950s. In the 40-plus year history of estimates of returns to investment in education, there have been several reviews of the empirical results in attempts to establish patterns. Many more estimates from a wide variety of countries, including over time evidence, and estimates based on new econometric techniques, reaffirm the importance of human capital theory. This paper reviews and presents the latest estimates and patterns as found in the literature at the turn of the century. However, because the availability of rate of return estimates has grown exponentially, we include a new section on the need for selectivity in comparing returns to investment in education and establishing related patterns.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003James G. Scoville The American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002. Vol. 61. No. 3. P. 713-723.
Recent events have focused attention on international labor standards, with some special attention being paid to child labor. The diverse forms of child labor are often merged into one: a stereotype of children sewing Nikes, although the situation varies widely from that model. Certain forms of child labor are not substitutable by adult labor; others are more appropriately modeled as a form of apprenticeship. A simple family utility function helps elucidate the reasons. The ultimate purpose of the paper is to challenge the policy ambiguitywe cannot tell whether restrictions on child labor are good or badthat was a result in Basu and Vans earlier (1998) modeling of child labor.
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002Cara L. Brown Feminist Economics. 1998. Vol. 4. No. 2. P. 89-95(7) .
In attempting to ascertain various impacts on labor market outcomes using categories such as gender, race, ethnicity, and physical ability, a void exists with respect to sexual orientation. Whereas heterosexism and homophobia can explain some of the reasons for the void, the inability to collect data randomly about homosexuals' experiences in the labor market nullifies the basic tenet of all scientific research-random samples. A unique approach is presented which looks at income data for nonrelatives of the same sex, ages 45 to 64, living together in Canada, as a first attempt at comparing same-sex and opposite-sex genders, and is used to demonstrate the contribution of recognizing sexual orientation to economic questions. Other examples based on well-known debates about female labor participation and gender wage gaps are presented to evaluate the usefulness of studying economics recognizing sexual orientation. The need for such study is acknowledged as a measure of the inclusiveness of the economics discipline.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Pierre Cahuc
In this paper, we investigate whether unemployment benefits should decrease with the unemployment spell in a model where both job search intensity and wages are endogenous. Wages are set by collective agreements bargained by insiders. It is shown that a more declining time sequence of unemployment benefits leads to wage increases when the tax rate is given. Such an effect may imply an increase in unemployment and counteracts the response of job search intensity that can be found in standard job search models with a given wage distribution. Calibration exercises suggest that it costs twice more in terms of welfare loss for the long-term unemployed workers to reduce the unemployment rate of one percent when wages are endogenous than in the standard job search model.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007John DiNardo, David Card Journal of Labor Economics. 2002. Vol. 20. No. 4. P. 733-783.
The recent rise in wage inequality is usually attributed to skill-biased technical change (SBTC), associated with new computer technologies. We review the evidence for this hypothesis, focusing on the implications of SBTC for overall wage inequality and for changes in wage differentials between groups. A key problem for the SBTC hypothesis is that wage inequality stabilized in the 1990s despite continuing advances in computer technology; SBTC also fails to explain the evolution of other dimensions of wage inequality, including the gender and racial wage gaps and the age gradient in the return to education.