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Экономика труда изучает трудовые отношения, условия формирования и использования трудового потенциала (подробнее...)

Статьи

Всего статей в данном разделе : 301

Опубликовано на портале: 05-02-2007
Christopher R. Taber Review of Economic Studies. 2006.  Vol. 68. No. 3. P. 665-691. 
The changes in the distribution of earnings during the 1980s have been studied extensively. The two most striking characteristics of the decade are (a) a large increase in the college/high school wage gap, and (b) a substantial rise in the variance of wage residuals. While this second phenomenon is typically implicitly attributed to an increase in the demand for unobserved skill, most work in this area fails to acknowledge that this same increase in demand for unobserved skill could drive the evolution of the measured college premium. In its simplest form, if higher ability individuals are more likely to attend college, then the increase in the college wage premium may be due to a increase in the relative demand for high ability workers rather than an increase in the demand for skills accumulated in college. This paper develops and estimates a dynamic programming selection model in order to investigate the plausibility of this explanation. The results are highly suggestive that an increase in the demand for unobserved ability could play a major role in the growing college premium.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007
Daron K. Acemoglu, Jörn-Steffen Pischke Journal of Political Economy. 1999.  Vol. 107. No. 3. P. 539-572. 
In the human capital model with perfect labor markets, firms never invest in general skills and all costs of general training are borne by workers. When labor market frictions compress the structure of wages, firms may pay for these investments. The distortion in the wage structure turns "technologically" general skills into de facto "specific" skills. Credit market imperfections are neither necessary nor sufficient for firm-sponsored training. Since labor market frictions and institutions shape the wage structure, they may have an important impact on the financing and amount of human capital investments and account for some international differences in training practices.
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Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007
Daron K. Acemoglu Review of Economic Studies. 1997.  Vol. 64. No. 3. P. 445-464. 
This paper shows that in a frictional labor market part of the productivity gains from general training will be captured by future employers. As a result, investments in general skills will be suboptimally low, and contrary to the standard theory, part of the costs may be borne by the employers. The paper also demonstrates that the interaction between innovation and training leads to an amplification of this inefficiency and to a multiplicity of equilibria. Workers are more willing to invest in their skills by accepting lower wages today if they expect more firms to innovate and pay them higher wages in the future. Similarly, firms are more willing to innovate when they expect the quality of the future workforce to be higher, thus when workers invest more in their skills.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-01-2003
Yuji Genda, Masako Kurosawa Journal of the Japanese and International Economies. 2001.  Vol. 15. No. 4. P. 465-488. 
Using retrospective data of young people's work experience in Japan, this paper found that initial labor market conditions, i.e., when workers first enter the labor market after permanently leaving school, have a significant lasting impact on the employment experiences of workers in their teens and twenties. An increase in the unemployment rate at the time of labor market entry reduces the probability of gaining full-time regular employment and, more important, increases the future probability of workers of leaving employers by lowering the quality of job matches. It was also found that the vocational guidance or recommendations workers received at school could be effective in raising the quality of job matches. The adverse effect of initial unemployment rates on employment opportunities was most profoundly observed among female college graduates.
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Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002
Joseph Wesson
This paper describes the labor market in general, and the job search process in particular, as stochastic decay processes. this has implications in terms of information, discrimination and the Natural Rate Hypothesis.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-01-2004
Michele Belot, Jan C. van Ours Journal of the Japanese and International Economies. 2001.  Vol. 15. No. 4. P. 403-418. 
The development of the unemployment rate differs substantially between OECD countries. In this paper we investigate to what extent these differences are related to labor market institutions. In our analysis we use data of eighteen OECD countries over the period 1960-1994 and show that the way in which institutions interact is important.
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Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002
Maria Melkersson
Return to employment, after a period of unemployment, is analyzed for a large sample of Swedish occupationally disabled workers. A piece-wise constant model is used, extended to allow for Gamma heterogeneity. Three competing exits from unemployment are accounted for; regular employment, sheltered/subsidized employment and withdrawal from the labor force. The model is also generalized by accounting for differing search behavior within the population. The hazard rate is constant or slightly increasing over time, for exit to some kind of employment. However, for exit from unemployment by leaving the labor force, the hazard shows quite strong positive duration dependence. Men tend to be more probable to leave unemployment for regular employment, and less probable than women to leave the labor force. The probability of finding regular employment is smallest for workers with psychological disabilities, while high-school or university education as well as previous professional experience increases the hazard rate for regular employment. The heterogeneity due to differing search behavior appears to be at least as important as the Gamma heterogeneity. The estimated probabilities of no search for one particular exit varies, across exits and subsamples, between 0.0 and 0.4.
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Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002
Bertil Holmlund Scandinavian Journal of Economics. 1998.  Vol. 100. No. 1. P. 113-141. 
A hallmark of modern labor economics is the close interplay between the development of theory, data sources and econometric testing. The evolution of the economic analysis of unemployment insurance provides a good illustration. New theoretical approaches, in particular job-search theory, have inspired a large amount of empirical research, some of it methodologically innovative and most of it highly relevant for economic policy. The paper presents a broad survey and an assessment of the economic analysis of unemployment insurance as it has evolved since the 1970s.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003
David G. Blanchflower Journal of the Japanese and International Economies. 2001.  Vol. 15. No. 4. P. 364-402. 
The paper studies the labor markets of 23 transition countries from eastern and central EuropeAlbania, Armenia, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, East Germany, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine, and Yugoslavia. It uses new micro-data from a large number of surveys on over 200,000 randomly sampled individuals from these countries for the years 19901997. The microeconometric structure of unemployment regression equations in the nations of eastern Europe appears to be similar to the industrialised west. Estimation of east European wage curves produces a local unemployment elasticity of between 0.1 and 0.3. This is somewhat larger in absolute terms than has been found elsewhere. On a variety of attitudinal measures, eastern Europeans said they were less contented than their western European counterparts. The strongest support for the changes that have occurred in eastern Europe is to be found among men, the young, the most educated, students, and the employed and particularly the self-employed. Support for market reforms is particularly low amongst the unemployed who were found to be particularly unhappy on two well-being measures
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-11-2004
Kai-Uwe Kuhn, Jorge A. Padilla The Economic Journal. 2002.  Vol. 112. No. 479. P. 317-343. 
In this paper, we construct a new basis for insider--outsider theory that acknowledges that insiders are typically easier to organise, so that they can delegate their bargaining decisions to a representative if they want to. We show that harassment or discrimination of new workers by the insider work force is neither individually rational nor needed to explain union formation or inefficient hiring decisions. However, we show that there is a strong tendency for overemployment. Unions tend to increase the efficiency of hiring decisions although union contracts will look like inducing underemployment.
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Опубликовано на портале: 22-09-2003
Raphael W. Bostic Journal of Urban Economics. 1997.  Vol. 41. No. 1. P. 38-55. 
This paper investigates the stylized empirical facts regarding U.S. urban growth in the 1880s. The author estimates the covariation of empirical proxies for various theorized sources of growth with the growth rates in output, capital, and labor. Results support Barro [Quarterly Journal of Economics, 106, 407-444 (1991)] and others who have found an important role for convergence and other neoclassical mechanisms. Importantly, it is found that externality-based factors impacted growth in inputs but had no direct relationship with productivity growth.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-03-2007
Richard J. Murnane, Frank Levy Journal of Economic Literature. 1992.  Vol. 30. No. 3. P. 1333-81. 
The article studies the U.S. earning trends since 1950 and gives explanations for the inequality in earnings. Both slow growth and increased inequality appear in the comparison of adult male earnings distributions for 1979 and 1987. Trends in women's earnings paint a somewhat brighter picture. Women, like men, have experienced slow hourly wage growth and growing wage inequality. But in terms of annual earnings, both factors have been offset by changes in hours worked. The result is a significant increase in the proportion of women who earn $20,000 a year or more. A combination of shifts in supply and shifts in demand is necessary to explain the observed trends between these groups. A critical aspect of supply shifts was the entry into the labor market of the well-educated baby boom generation. Demand shifts can be characterized as a long-term trend toward increasing relative demand for highly skilled workers. The growth in within group earnings inequality has many potential explanations, but it is not well understood and contains opportunities for future research.
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Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2002
David A. Mott Pharmaceutical Research. 2001.  Vol. 18. No. 2. P. 224-233. 
The objectives of this study were to develop a theoretically derived model of hours worked by pharmacists and estimate the model separately for male and female pharmacists. Methods. A systematic random sample of 1,600 pharmacists from four states was mailed a survey asking about current and past employment information. Two dependent variables were studied: weekly hours worked and annual hours worked. Independent variables were categorized as economic variables (hourly wage rate, other income, total debt) and demographic variables (employment position, age, degree earned, marital status, number of children at home). A two equation multiple regression model was estimated with two-stage least squares regression. Results. A total of 541 pharmacists responded to the survey and data from 442 of the respondents were used in the analysis. Hourly wage rates were negatively associated with weekly hours worked for males. Other income and total debt were significantly negatively and positively associated, respectively, with annual hours worked by female pharmacists. The number of young children at home significantly reduced weekly and annual hours worked by female pharmacists. Female pharmacists earning a Pharm.D. degree worked significantly more hours weekly and annually. Age was significantly negatively associated with male pharmacists weekly and annual hours worked. Conclusions. Economic variables had a relatively small effect on hours worked by male and female pharmacists suggesting that increased wage rates may not increase hours worked. Strategies to increase hours worked by females likely should focus on benefits to help females handle childcare issues.
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Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2004
Philip James Employee Relations. 1995.  Vol. 17. No. 6.
Examines the deliberations, conclusions and recommendations of the US Commission on the Future of Worker-Management Relations on the issues of employee involvement and collective bargaining. Draws on the two reports published by the Commission and testimony given by employer and union representatives. Notes the Commission's failure to discuss non-union forms of employee representation. Suggests that little legal change is likely to result and any that does occur is unlikely to be favourable to trade unions.
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Опубликовано на портале: 26-10-2007
Stephen L. Ross, Shihe Fu Department of Economics University of Connecticut: Working papers. 2007.  No. 2007-26.
The correlation between wage premia and concentrations of firm activity may arise due to agglomeration economies or workers sorting by unobserved productivity. A worker's residential location is used as a proxy for their unobservable productivity attributes in order to test whether estimated work location wage premia are robust to the inclusion of these controls. Further, in a locational equilibrium, identical workers must receive equivalent compensation so that after controlling for residential location (housing prices) and commutes workers must be paid the same wages and only wage premia arising from unobserved productivity differences should remain unexplained. The models in this paper are estimated using a sample of male workers residing in 33 large metropolitan areas drawn from the 5% Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) from the 2000 U.S. Decennial Census. We find that wages are higher when an individual works in a location that has more workers or a greater density of workers. These agglomeration effects are robust to the inclusion of residential location controls and disappear with the inclusion of commute time suggesting that the effects are not caused by unobserved differences in worker productivity. Extended model specifications suggest that wages increase with the education level of nearby workers and the concentration of workers in an individual's own industry or occupation.
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