Всего статей в данном разделе : 136
Опубликовано на портале: 16-12-2003L. Alan Winters, Maurice Schiff World Bank Policy Research Working Papers. 2002. No. 2872.
Schiff and Winters examine regional cooperation among neighboring countries in the area of regional public goods. These public goods include water basins (such as lakes, rivers, and underground water), infrastructure (such as roads, railways, and dams), energy, and the environment. Their analysis focuses on developing countries and the potentially beneficial role that international organizations and regional integration may play in bringing the relevant countries to a cooperative equilibrium. A major problem in reaching a cooperative solution is likely to be the lack of trust. If neighboring countries do not trust each other because of past problems, they may fail to reach a cooperative solution as each tries to maximize its gain from the regional public good. These strategies typically do not account for spillover effects and ultimately leads to losses for all parties. Other constraints on reaching a cooperative solution are its complexity and the financial requirements. Two types of institutions may help resolve some or all of these problems. International organizations can help with trust, expertise, and financing. The United Nations and the World Bank have been involved in a number of such projects in Africa, Asia, and elsewhere, and have been successful in helping parties reach cooperative solutions. Regional integration agreements, though not necessary for regional cooperation, may also be helpful by embedding the negotiations on regional cooperation in a broader institutional framework. The authors examine these issues with the support of both analysis and a number of case studies.
Regional Integration and Technology Diffusion: The Case of the North America Free Trade Agreement [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 16-12-2003Yanling Wang, Maurice Schiff World Bank Policy Research Working Papers. 2003. No. 3132.
The literature on regional integration agreements (RIAs) is vast and deals with political, economic, and political economy issues. The literature on the economics of RIAs deals mostly with static effects, and concludes that these effects are, in general, ambiguous. So far there has been no empirical analysis of the dynamic effects of RIAs based on their impact on technology diffusion from partner and nonpartner countries. Schiff and Wang's paper is a first attempt in this direction. The authors examine the impact of the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on total factor productivity in Mexico through its impact on trade-related technology transfers from OECD countries. They estimate trade-related technology diffusion by using a measure of trade-related foreign research and development (R&D). Foreign R&D is constructed based on industry-specific R&D in the OECD, OECD-Mexico trade patterns, and input-output relations in Mexico. The authors find that: (i) Mexico’s trade with its NAFTA partners had a large and significant impact on Mexico’s total factor productivity, while trade with the rest of the OECD did not. (ii) Simulating the impact of NAFTA has led to a permanent increase in total factor productivity in Mexico’s manufacturing sector of between 5.5 percent and 7.5 percent and to some convergence with the economies of Canada and the United States.
Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003James Harrigan NBER Working Paper Series. 2001. w8675.
The core subjects of trade theory are the pattern and volume of trade: which goods are traded by which countries, and how much of those goods are traded. The first part of the paper discusses evidence on comparative advantage, with an emphasis on carefully connecting theory models to data analyses. The second part of the chapter first considers the theoretical foundations of the gravity model, and then reviews the small number of papers that have tried to test, rather than simply use, the implications of gravity. Both parts of the paper yield the same conclusion: we are still in the very early stages of empirically understanding specialization and the volume of trade, but the work that has been done can serve as a starting point for further research.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2003Mattias Ganslandt, James R. Markusen NBER Working Paper Series. 2001. . w8346.
Standards and technical regulations which govern the admissibility of imported goods into an economy raise costs of exporters entering new markets, and may have a particularly high impact on firms seeking to export from developing countries. Yet standards may also have a positive side, such as certifying product quality and safety for the consumer. This paper suggests approaches to modeling standards and technical regulations, with a particular concern that these approaches are at least potentially implementable in an applied general-equilibrium model with real data.
Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2010Gerard Duchene Экономический журнал ВШЭ. 1999. Т. 3. № 4. С. 503-528.
The paper discusses the factors which explain the spread of the output decline across various industries of the Former Soviet Union. Russia and Ukraine are compared on the period 1990-95. Several traditional explanations, such as the move away from military oriented production, the replacement of the planner's preferences by consumer preferences, the disruption of the intransoviet trade relations, the change in the relative price of products when countries opened to foreign trade, and the change in factor endowments due to the split of the FSU, are all examined. Although some of these factors do have an influence on the relative growth (decline) of various industries ikn both countries, they fail to explain most of the variance of this growth (decline). Another explanatory factor is thus envisaged, namely the quality content of each industry. Quality is measured by two characteristics, the diversity (number of products made by a given industry) and the variety (Grubel-Lloyd ratio or degree of intra-industry trade), both indicators beeing measured for a typical western economy. The tests show that both Ukraine and Russia are weak at producing high quality complex goods and relatively better off producing standard homogenous commodities. The quality shock thus appears more important than the price shock to explain the dramatic decline of some ex-soviet industries.
Опубликовано на портале: 25-10-2007Xenia Matschke Journal of International Economics. 2003. No. 61. P. 209-223.
This paper investigates the equivalence of optimal import tariffs and quotas in a Cournot duopoly model when firms have more information about demand than the domestic government. The author considers a screening model in which the government offers the domestic firm different contracts from which to choose. She shows that the availability and cost of obtaining correct information from the firm depends upon the choice of trade policy instrument. Asymmetric information thus destroys the equivalence of tariffs and quotas, which prevails under complete information, and has a profound impact on how government, firms, and consumers rank different trade policy instruments.
Tax Competition and Trade Protection [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2003Eckhard Janeba, John D. Wilson NBER Working Paper Series. 1999. w7402.
This paper reconsiders the question of whether tax competition for mobile capital leads to tax rates on capital that are too low or too high from the combined viewpoint of the competing regions (or countries in an economic union). In contrast to standard models of tax competition, both commodity trade and capital mobility is allowed to occur between the competing regions and the rest of the world. A key result of the analysis is that whether the capital taxes are too low or high depends on the degree of external trade protection. When the country's central government is free to set the tariff, tax competition leads to inefficiently low tax rates. But in the absence of a tariff, tax rates can be too high. In particular, regions may choose to subsidize capital in equilibrium as a means of inducing favorable terms-of-trade effects, but the subsidy (i.e., a negative tax) will then be too low because an increase in a single region's subsidy benefits other regions by reducing their relative quantities of subsidized capital. These results are discussed in the context of the European Union's Single Market, where non-EU firms have responded to the 'Fortress of Europe' by increasing foreign direct investment.
Testing Trade Theory in Ohlin's Time [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-12-2003Antoni Estevadeordal, Alan M. Taylor NBER Working Paper Series. 2002. w8842.
An empirical tradition in international trade seeks to establish whether the predictions of factor abundance theory match present-day data. In the analysis of goods trade and factor endowments, mildly encouraging results were found by Leamer et al. But ever since the appearance of Leontief's paradox, the measured factor content of trade has always been found to be far smaller than its predicted magnitude in the Heckscher-Ohlin-Vanek framework, the so-called 'missing trade' mystery. Autors wonder if this problem was there in the theory from the beginning. This seems like a fairer test of its creators' original enterprise. Autors apply contemporary tests to historical data on goods and factor trade from Ohlin's time. Autor's analysis is set in a very different context than contemporary studies - an era with lower trade barriers, higher transport costs, a more skewed global distribution of the relevant factors (especially land), and comparably large productivity divergence. Autors find some support for the theory, but also encounter common problems. Autor's work thus complements the tests applied to today's data and informs our search for improved models of trade.
Опубликовано на портале: 16-12-2003Aaditya Mattoo, Devesh Roy, Arvind Subramanian IMF Working Paper Series. 2002. No. 02/158 .
This paper describes the United States recently enacted Africa Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) and assesses its quantitative impact on African exports. The AGOA expands the scope of preferential access of Africa's exports to the United States in key areas such as clothing. However, its medium term benefits estimated at about US$100-$140 million, an 8 11 percent addition to current non-oil exports would have been nearly five times greater (US$540 million) if no restrictive conditions had been imposed on the terms of market access. The most important of these conditions are the rules of origin with which African exporters of clothing must comply to benefit from duty-free access.
The Competitive Impact of International Trade: The Case of Import Liberalization of the Japanese Oil Product Market [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003Nagaoka Sadao, Kumura Fukunari Journal of the Japanese and International Economies. 1999. No. 13. P. 397-423 .
This paper analyzes the competitive impact of the recent import liberalization of the Japanese oil product market. In response to the import liberalization in March 1996, not only did the market price of gasoline decline sharply but also its domestic production kept rising and did not decline relative to imports. Moreover, its price fell substantially before the actual liberalization of the import. This paper demonstrates both theoretically and empirically that the theory of implicit cartel can explain such features of the impact of import liberalization very well. The paper also identifies the significantly positive welfare impact of such liberalization due to the expansion of supply in a market with a large tax wedge between price and cost and, possibly more importantly, due to the transformation of competitive conduct from unproductive investment for cartel-rent shifting into price cuts.
The Effects of Multinational Production on Wages and Working Conditions in Developing Countries [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2003Drusilla K. Brown, Alan V. Deardorff, Robert M. Stern NBER Working Paper Series. 2003. w9669.
This paper assesses the evidence regarding the effects of multinational production on wages and working conditions in developing countries. It is motivated by recent controversies concerning whether multinational firms in developing countries exploit workers by paying low wages and subjecting them to substandard conditions. Authors first address efforts of activist groups, universities, and colleges in the Anti-Sweatshop' Campaign in the United States, the social accountability of multinational firms, and the role of such international institutions as the International Labor Organization and World Trade Organization in dealing with labor standards and trade. Authors then consider conceptually how foreign direct investment might affect host-country wages. Available theories yield ambiguous predictions, leaving the effects to be examined empirically. Authors therefore, finally, review empirical evidence on multinational firm wages in developing countries, and the relationship between foreign direct investment and labor rights. This evidence indicates that multinational firms routinely provide higher wages and better working conditions than their local counterparts, and they are typically not attracted preferentially to countries with weak labor standards.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-12-2003Marc J. Melitz NBER Working Paper Series. 2002. w8881.
This paper builds a dynamic industry model with heterogeneous firms that explains why international trade induces reallocations of resources among firms in an industry. The paper shows how the exposure to trade will induce only the more productive firms to enter the export market (while some less productive firms continue to produce only for the domestic market) and will simultaneously force the least productive firms to exit. It then shows how further increases in the industry's exposure to trade lead to additional inter-firm reallocations towards more productive firms. These phenomena have been empirically documented but can not be explained by current general equilibrium trade models, because they rely on a representative firm framework. The paper also shows how the aggregate industry productivity growth generated by the reallocations contributes to a welfare gain, thus highlighting a benefit from trade that has not been examined theoretically before. The paper adapts Hopenhayn's (1992a) dynamic industry model to monopolistic competition in a general equilibrium setting. In so doing, the paper provides an extension of Krugman's (1980) trade model that incorporates firm level productivity differences. Firms with different productivity levels coexist in an industry because each firm faces initial uncertainty concerning its productivity before making an irreversible investment to enter the industry. Entry into the export market is also costly, but the firm's decision to export occurs after it gains knowledge of its productivity.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-10-2007Ion Botescu Theoretical and Applied Economics. 2007. P. 45-48.
The intensification of the globalization of the world economy is the result of the amplification and diversification without precedent of the material, financial and human flows between the world’s states. The international commerce has known in the last period o strong expansion, almost uninterrupted, surpassing the industrial production growth and PIB on a world scale. Among the PIB evolution and the evolution of the world commerce there is a strong relationship of correlation, fact shown by the linear correlation coefficient. The structure on exports of country categories confirms the fact that the process of globalization has been fully completed in the world. Romania, through its achieved economic opening, has boosted its participation to the international economic trades. In this way there is a chance for Romania’s economy in the future to become more competitive, even though in the present our country faces serious problems concerning the strong deficit of the foreign trade balance.
Опубликовано на портале: 16-12-2003Allan D. Brunner IMF Working Paper Series. 2003. No. 03/37.
This paper examines the dynamic relationship between trade and income. While most economists agree that increased trade leads to an increase in average income, economic theory is ambiguous about the possible effects on the long-run growth rate of the economy. Using a dynamic panel data model, the hypotheses of no long-run effects of trade on income and on income growth are tested explicitly. The possibility of endogeneity is addressed by constructing an instrument for trade by extending Frankel and Romer's (1999) cross-sectional approach to the case of a panel data model. The empirical results indicate that trade has a large and significant effect on the level of income, but the effect on income growth is small and non-robust to model specification.
Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2003Douglas A. Irwin NBER Working Paper Series. 2001. w8689.
The United States produced about 80 percent of the world's cotton in the decades prior to the Civil War. How much monopoly power did the United States possess in the world cotton market and what would have been the effect of an optimal export tax? This paper estimates the elasticity of foreign demand for U.S. cotton exports and uses the elasticity in a simple partial equilibrium model to calculate the optimal export tax and its effect on prices, trade, and welfare. The results indicate that the export demand elasticity for U.S. cotton was about -1.7 and that the optimal export tax of about 50 percent would have raised U.S. welfare by about $6 million, about 0.1 percent of U.S. GDP or about 0.5 percent of the South's GDP.