Всего статей в данном разделе : 152
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2003Alan M. Taylor NBER Working Paper Series. 2002. W8927 .
Recent globalization trends have refocused attention on the historical evolution of international capital mobility over the long run. The issue is examined here using time-series analysis of current-account dynamics for fifteen countries since circa 1850. The inter-war period emerges as an era of low capital mobility and only recently can we observe a tentative return to the degree of capital mobility witnessed during the late nineteenth century. The analysis of saving and investment dynamics also helps make sense of the frequently observed high correlation of saving and investment rates in historical data.
Опубликовано на портале: 25-10-2007Philippe Aghion, Philippe Bacchetta, Abhijit Banerjee Journal of Economic Theory. 2004. Vol. 119. No. 1. P. 6-30.
This paper presents a general equilibrium currency crisis model of the 'third generation', in which the possibility of currency crises is driven by the interplay between private firms' credit-constraints and nominal price rigidities. Despite our emphasis on microfoundations, the model remains sufficiently simple that the policy analysis can be conducted graphically. The analysis hinges on four main features: i) ex post deviations from purchasing power parity; ii) credit constraints a la Bernanke-Gertler; iii) foreign currency borrowing by domestic firms; iv) a competitive banking sector lending to firms and holding reserves and a monetary policy conducted either through open market operations or short-term lending facilities. We first show that with a positive likelihood of a currency crisis, firms may indeed find it optimal to borrow in foreign currency, following Chamon (2001). Second, we derive sufficient conditions for the existence of a sunspot equilibrium with currency crises. Third, we show that a reduction in the monetary base through restrictive open market operations is more likely to eliminate the possibility of currency crises if at the same time the central bank does not impose excessive constraints on short-term lending facilities
Addicted to Dollars [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2003Kenneth S. Rogoff, Carmen M. Reinhart, Miguel A. Savastano NBER Working Paper Series. 2003. W10015 .
Dollarization, in a broad sense, is increasingly a defining characteristic of many emerging market economies. How important is this trend quantitatively and how important is it for the conduct of monetary policy and the choice of exchange rate regimes? Though these questions have become a hot topic in both the theory and policy literature, most efforts are remarkably uninformed by evidence, in no small part because meaningful data has been lacking, except for a very narrow range of assets. This paper attempts to move the discussion forward and shed light on the critical questions by proposing a measure of dollarization that is broad both conceptually and in terms of country coverage. We use this measure to identify trends in the evolution of dollarization in the developing world in the last two decades, and to ascertain the consequences that dollarization has had on the effectiveness of monetary and exchange rate policy. We find that, contrary to the general presumption in the literature, a high degree of dollarization does not seem to be an obstacle to monetary control or to disinflation. A level of dollarization does, however, appear to increase exchange rate pass-through, reinforcing the claim that 'fear of floating' is a greater problem for highly dollarized economies. We also review the developing countries' record in combating their addiction to dollars. Concretely, we try to explain why some countries have been able to avoid certain forms of the addiction, and examine the evidence on successful de-dollarization.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-11-2004Ricardo J. Caballero, Arvind Krishnamurthy NBER Working Paper Series. 2002. w8758.
The last few years have seen a significant re-evaluation of the models used to analyze crises in emerging markets. Recent models typically stress financial constraints or distorted financial incentives. While this certainly represents progress, these models share a weakness with the earlier work: neither is uniquely about emerging markets. Adaptations of the Mundell-Fleming model represent Argentina as a Belgium with larger external shocks. Likewise, emerging market models of financial constraints are adaptations of developed economy ones with tighter financial constraints. In our work, we have advocated a model which distinguishes between the financial constraints affecting borrowing and lending among agents within an emerging economy, and those affecting borrowing from foreign lenders. This 'dual liquidity' model offers a parsimonious description of the behavior of firms, governments, and asset prices during financial crises. It also provides prescriptions for optimal policy responses to these crises.
A Model of an Optimum Currency Area [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2007Luca Ricci Economics Discussion Papers. 2007. No. 2007-45.
This paper develops a model of the circumstances under which it is beneficial to participate in a currency area. The proposed two-country monetary model of trade with nominal rigidities encompasses the real and monetary arguments suggested by the optimum currency area literature: correlation of real and monetary shocks, international factor mobility, fiscal adjustment, openness, difference in national inflationary biases, and transactions costs. The effect of openness on the net benefits is ambiguous, contrary to the usual argument that more open economies are better candidates for a currency area. Also, prospective member countries do not necessarily agree on whether a given currency union should be created.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2007Wolfgang Lemke Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies. 2007. No. 13/2007.
A joint model of macroeconomic and term structure dynamics is specified and estimated for the euro area. The model comprises a backward-looking Phillips curve, a dynamic IS equation, a monetary policy rule as well as a specification of the dynamics of trend growth and the natural real interest rate. Under the condition of no arbitrage, yields of all maturities are affine functions of the macroeconomic driving forces. With the exception of a shock to potential output growth, the response of short-term yields to macroeconomic shocks is generally stronger than that of long-term yields. Impulse responses of all bond yields are fairly persistent, which reflects the persistence of their macroeconomic driving forces. Across the whole maturity spectrum, about ninety percent of the variation in yields is explained jointly by monetary policy shocks and shocks to the natural real rate of interest; the relative contribution of the latter shock increases with time to maturity. Cost-push shocks explain at most eight percent, while shocks to the output gap play an even less important role.
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2003Zeno Rotondi, Glacomo Vaciago Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Milano Working Papers. 2002. No. 46.
Several alternative explanations have been put forward to explain what has been named the "mystery" of the weak Euro, after it started. We test a new hypothesis which is based on the historical process leading to the new European currency. It was necessary to convince the German public opinion that the Euro would have been as good as the DM. Also the new European Central Bank - based in Frankfurt - should have been as capable as the Bundesbank in delivering monetary stability. This is therefore the hypothesis that we test and find positive results for. The weakness of the Euro mirrors what would have happened if the D. Mark were still alive. The quest for a more European currency continues.
Опубликовано на портале: 25-10-2007Tuomas A. Peltonen European Central Bank, Working Paper Series. 2006. No. 571.
This paper analyzes the predictability of emerging market currency crises by comparing the often used probit model to a new method, namely a multi-layer perceptron artificial neural network (ANN) model. According to the results, both models were able to signal currency crises reasonably well in-sample, but the forecasting power of these models out-ofsample was found to be rather poor. Only in the case of Russian (1998) crisis were both models able to signal the crisis well in advance. The results reinforced the view that developing a stable model that can predict or even explain currency crises is a challenging task
Are Windfalls a Curse? A Non-Representative Agent Model of the Current Account and Fiscal Policy [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003Aaron Tornell, Philip Lane Journal of International Economics. 1998. Vol. 44. P. 83-112.
In several countries temporary terms of trade improvements have led to a deterioration of the current account. Furthermore, many of these countries failed to attain greater post-boom growth rates. The point we make is that the structure of the fiscal process is critical in determining outcomes. If fiscal control is unitary, then the consumption-smoothing effect is operative, and representative-agent models of the current account have predictive power. However, if control is divided among several fiscal claimants, a voracity effect appears which counteracts the consumption-smoothing effect, leading to a deterioration of the current account in response to a positive shock. We model the interaction among fiscal claimants as a dynamic game, and show that in equilibrium aggregate appropriation increases more than the windfall itself. This results in a deterioration of the current account. We also show that all the windfall is dissipated, with the country experiencing no increase in its growth rate. Lastly, we analyze the experiences of seven countries which have enjoyed large windfalls.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2007Gabriel Di Bella, Mark Lewis, Aurelie Martin IMF ,Working Paper. 2007. No. 07/201.
Assessing a country's competitiveness routinely starts with an analysis of the real exchange rate. However, in low-income countries, empirical analysis of the real exchange rate is often subject to important limitations that seriously weaken the results. This paper summarizes the methodologies used to assess real exchange rate misalignments and discusses the range of obstacles common to low-income countries. Recognizing the importance of using a wide range of indicators for assessing competitiveness in low-income countries, the paper discusses alternative competitive measures and then proposes a template of indicators to allow for a systematic assessment of competitiveness in low-income countries. The template is then used to rank countries according to their competitiveness performance in 2006.
Опубликовано на портале: 20-07-2004Luis Felipe Cespedes, Roberto Chang, Andres Velasco NBER Working Paper Series. 2000. No. 7840.
В статье анализируется связь между обменным курсом и балансом активов и пассивов и влияние этой связи на макроэкономические показатели в малой открытой экономике. Из-за высокой степени долларизации обязательств, обесценение национальной валюты, с одной стороны, снижает чистую стоимость компаний (net worth), что порождает финансовую хрупкость частного сектора. Это ведет к ограничению инвестиций. С другой стороны, девальвация приводит к расширению выпуска и росту отдачи от инвестиций, что также является компонентом чистой стоимости компании. В работе показывается, что негативный внешний шок может быть усилен эффектом баланса (balance sheet effect). В результате выпуск и инвестиции снижаются. При фиксированном курсе это падение сильнее, чем при плавающем. Таким образом, гибкий курс является лучим "амортизатором" внешних реальных шоков, даже несмотря на значительный эффект баланса.
Опубликовано на портале: 13-12-2007Julian Berengaut, Katrin Elborgh-Woytek IMF, Working Paper. 2006. No. 06/226.
Against the background of the theory of optimum currency areas, the paper analyzes possible sequences for establishing a currency union (CU) in the Middle East and Central Asia region. Between the corner solutions of independent currencies for all countries in the region and a CU comprising all countries, a large number of combinations of member countries in the CU is possible. The analysis aims to determine the composition of potential CUs as a function of the country initiating the CU, an exogenously determined number of currencies in the region, and the weight attached to the particular selection criteria. Within this framework, the study seeks to establish whether some countries are consistently selected at early stages of the process, while others join only at later stages.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2007Emine Boz IMF, Working Paper. 2007. No. 07/223.
Emerging market financial crises are abrupt and dramatic, usually occurring after a period of high output growth, massive capital flows, and a boom in asset markets. This paper develops an equilibrium asset-pricing model with informational frictions in which vulnerability and the crisis itself are consequences of the investor optimism in the period preceding the crisis. The model features two sets of investors, domestic and foreign. Both sets of investors learn from noisy signals, which contain information relevant for asset returns and formulate expectations, or "beliefs," about the state of productivity. We show that, if preceded by a sequence of positive signals, a small, negative noise shock can trigger a sharp downward adjustment in investors' beliefs, asset prices, and consumption. The magnitude of this downward adjustment and sensitivity to negative signals increase with the level of optimism attained prior to the negative signal.
Опубликовано на портале: 20-07-2004Maurice Obstfeld American Economic Review. 1982. Vol. 72. No. 2. P. 45-50.
Вне зависимости от режима валютного курса стерилизованные интервенции могут рассматриваться как попытка достичь двух целей одновременно: определенного уровня обменного курса и денежной массы. Для этого необходимо, чтобы облигации номинированные в различных валютах были несовершенными субститутами. С этой точки зрения в статье обсуждается возможность и последствия стерилизации в рамках режима фиксированного курса и управляемого плавания (managed floating).
Capital Flows, Financial Integration, and International Reserve Holdings: The Recent Experience of Emerging Markets and Advanced Economies [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 01-12-2007Woon Gyu Choi, Sunil Sharma, Maria Stromqvist IMF ,Working Paper. 2007. No. 07/151.
This paper examines the interaction between capital flows and international reserve holdings in the context of increasing financial integration. For emerging markets the sensitivity of reserves to net capital flows was negative in the 1980s, but became positive after the Asian crisis when these countries used net capital flows to build up reserves. For advanced countries, net capital flows had a negative effect on reserves, especially in recent years. Using measures of financial globalization, we also provide evidence that the sensitivity of reserves to net capital flows increased with globalization for emerging markets while it decreased for advanced countries.