Всего статей в данном разделе : 184
Опубликовано на портале: 14-12-2006Внешнеэкономические связи. 2004. Т. 12. № 12. С. 58-61.
Интервью Чрезвычайного и Полномочного Посла Королевства Швеция в Российской Федерации Ю. Муландера журналу «Внешнеэкономические связи». В интервью затрагиваются вопросы развития международного сотрудничества России и Швеции, развития внешнеэкономических связей Швеции с Россией, а также развития туристического бизнеса.
«Единое сообщество – наше будущее» [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 14-12-2006Внешнеэкономические связи. 2004. Т. 12. № 12. С. 38-42.
Статья представляет собой Декларацию стран – членов форума «Азиатско-Тихоокеанское экономическое сотрудничество», которая была принята 21 ноября 2004 года в Сантьяго главами государств и правительств. В Декларации поднимаются вопросы ускорения развития путем либерализации торговли и инвестирования, расширения торговли, упрочнения безопасности личности, развития образования, проблемы коллективной и национальной безопасности и т.д.
Опубликовано на портале: 14-12-2006Внешнеэкономические связи. 2004. Т. 11. № 11. С. 28.
В статье рассказывается о 59-ой сессии Генеральной Ассамблеи ООН, прошедшей в сентябре 2004 года в Нью-Йорке. В работе сессии приняли участие делегации всех государств-членов. Поднимались вопросы, касающиеся борьбы с терроризмом, бедностью, ВИЧ, защиты прав человека и окружающей среды, оказания помощи бедным странам, реформирования ООН, восстановления Ирака и Афганистана, а также достижения мира на Ближнем Востоке.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-12-2003Andrew K. Rose, Mark M. Spiegel NBER Working Paper Series. 2002. w9285.
One reason why countries service their external debts is the fear that default might lead to shrinkage of international trade. If so, then creditors should systematically lend more to countries with which they share closer trade links. Autors develop a simple theoretical model to capture this intuition, then test and corroborate this idea.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2007Ralph Chami, Sunil Sharma, Ilhyock Shim Discussion Paper. 2007. No. 2007-26.
The paper shows that an IMF-like coinsurance arrangement among countries can play a useful role in the global financial system. The operation of the coinsurance arrangement is examined under different loan contracts. It shows that, if the IMFґs objective is to safeguard its resources and be concerned about the welfare of the borrower, an ex ante loan contract is more likely to create the right incentives than an ex post loan contract. Such contracts highlight the need for precommitment to contend with the Samaritanґs dilemma and time inconsistency, and state-contingent repayment schemes to deal with King Learґs dilemma.
Опубликовано на портале: 14-07-2005Ross Levine, David Renelt American Economic Review. 1992. Vol. 82. No. 4. P. 942-963.
A vast literature uses cross-country regressions to search for empirical linkages between long-run growth rates and a variety of economic policy, political, and institutional indicators. This paper examines whether the conclusions from existing studies are robust or fragile to small changes in the conditioning information set. The authors find that almost all results are fragile. They do, however, identify a positive, robust correlation between growth and the share of investment in GDP and between the investment share and the ratio of international trade to GDP. The authors clarify the conditions under which there is evidence of per capita output convergence.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-05-2005Jeremy S.S. Edwards, Ronnie Schob CESifo Working Papers. 2002. No. 635.
This paper characterises the domestic tax systems which yield Pareto-efficient outcomes for a two-country world economy in which each country uses distortionary taxes. Such outcomes are compared with the Nash equilibria of the world economy when each country uses its domestic tax system to influence ist terms of trade. In such circumstances, the implementation of domestic tax systems which achieve a globally Pareto-efficient outcome as a Nash equilibrium will be very difficult, for two main reasons: the ability of countries to use tax policy with respect to non-traded goods for protection, and the fact that Pareto-efficient tax structures depend on countries‘ distributional judgements, which are hard to measure objectively.
Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2010Michel Camdessus Экономический журнал ВШЭ. 2001. Т. 5. № 3. С. 295-299.
Allow me first to express my deep sense of gratitude for the honor to address you, this second annual conference of the Higher School of Economic, in my new capacity as Chairman of the French Center for Prospective Studies and International Information (CEPII), at the invitation of Professor Yasin, with whom I had the privilege to cooperate closely over a long period of time and who has been, during all these critical years, a permanent example of lucidity, wisdom and courage. It was of course quite presumptuous to accept to speak here today with, as a topic: «drawing lessons from ten years of cooperation between Russia and IMF». We are too close to the events and I was too much – with my colleagues of the IMF – part of them, to be able, after just 15 months, to draw lessons with an academic objectivity. Remember what Chou en Lai used to say about the French 1789 Revolution «we are possibly still too close to the events to be able to pass a final judgment». Even without pretending, to share this Chinese wisdom, the only thing I can offer at this stage are a few temporary, honest but subjective conclusions, with only the modest ambition of contributing, in my strictly personal capacity, to a useful debate.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-10-2007Fritz Breuss European Integration Online Papers. 2007. Vol. 9. No. 12.
Since its inception in 1995, more than 330 disputes have been raised under the WTO Dispute Settlement System. The major players in world trade the EU and the USA are also the busiest users of this instrument. After looking at links between economic integration and WTO involvement and a survey of the actual transatlantic WTO trade disputes, the welfare implications of the four most prominent trade disputes between the EU and the USA ("mini trade wars") are analyzed with GTAP5: the Hormones, the Bananas, the FSC and the Steel cases. The economic analysis reveals that the level of suspension of concessions hardly coincides with the level of nullification or impairment (expressed in lost trade effects) if one considers the overall welfare implications of retaliation with tariffs. The idea of "rebalancing" retaliation is a myth. Tariffs are a very bad instrument of retaliation. Maybe a mechanism of direct transfers or financial compensation would be better.
Опубликовано на портале: 31-10-2007Francesco Mazzaferro, Arnaud Mehl, Michael Sturm, Christian Thimann, Adalbert Winkler European Central Bank, Occasional Paper. 2002. No. 7.
This paper reviews the economic, monetary and financial relations between the EU and the euro area and a set of countries in a broad set of neighbouring regions. The 80 or so countries are mostly classified as transition, emerging or developing economies and belong to four main regions: the Western Balkans; the European part of the Commonwealth of Independent States; the Middle East and Northern Africa; and Sub-Saharan Africa. In many respects, these countries are diverse; however, some common features can also be identified. One of these common features is the fact that the euro area is their largest trading partner and the largest originator of international bank credit, foreign direct investment and official development assistance; meanwhile, from a euro area perspective, while these countries account for a somewhat smaller share of external trade, they are important as providers of energy, other raw materials and agricultural products.
Effect of IMF Structural Adjustment Programs on Expectations: The Case of Transition Economies [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2007Patrick A. Imam IMF ,Working Paper. 2007.
We analyze the effect of IMF programs on economic agents' expectations about the economy in transitional countries using survey data from the Central and Eastern Eurobarometer poll, an annual general public survey monitoring the evolution of public opinion from 1990 to 1997. Previous studies, in contrast, have looked at indirect measures, such as capital flows or yield spreads, to assess the impact of IMF programs on economic expectations. Using a multinomial probit model, we find that IMF loans appear to have a strong effect on agent expectations in the early years, through the inflow of real money, and through the signaling effect. IMF programs during periods of collapsing growth appear to reinforce underlying expectations for the future; they are associated with positive expectations for those with an optimistic outlook and negative expectations for those with a negative outlook. Once recovery is underway, and economic uncertainty diminishes, it appears that IMF programs cease to have a statistically significant effect on the expectations of economic agents. This suggests that IMF programs have the biggest impact on expectations during periods of great uncertainty and less of an impact when countries are subject to minor shocks.
EMU: Ready, or Not? [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2003Maurice Obstfeld NBER Working Paper Series. 1999. w6682.
In this paper I focus on two specific hazard areas in the transition from Stage Two to Stage Three of European economic and monetary union (EMU), as well as on some key problems of Stage Three that EMU's monetary and fiscal structures appear ill-prepared to handle. The transitional hazards are of considerable theoretical as well as policy interest: the best way to coordinate monetary stances and lock exchange parties for a smooth switch from eleven national currencies to a single joint currency. A third problems, one that is central for EMU and to any currency union, lies behind the difficulty of the transition: the possibility of nationally asymmetric real shocks. I review that topic in the context of Ireland's recent experience. The paper goes on to discuss weaknesses in the structure of Stage Three, already much noted, connected with the provision of lender of last resort facilities in the euro zone and the framework for supervising financial institutions. The deficit and debt limits embodies in the excessive deficits procedure of the Maastrich treaty and the subsequent Stability and Growth Pact have been justified by the threat high debts might pose to the stability of the euro zone's financial markets. I consider the past and prospective fiscal adjustments of the EMU 11, and suggest these might pose future difficulties for macroeconomic policy and growth.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2003Jeffrey A. Frankel, Andrew K. Rose NBER Working Paper Series. 2000. w7857.
Gravity-based cross-sectional evidence indicates that currency unions stimulate trade; cross-sectional evidence indicates that trade stimulates output. This paper estimates the effect that currency union has, via trade, on output per capita. Authors use economic and geographic data for over 200 countries to quantify the implications of currency unions for trade and output, pursuing a two-state approach. Author's estimates at the first stage suggest that belonging to a currency union more than triples trade with the other members of the zone. Moreover, there is no evidence of trade-diversion. Our estimates at the second stage suggest that every one percent increase in trade (relative to GDP) raises income per capita by roughly 1/3 of a percent over twenty years. Authors combine the two estimates to quantify the effect of currency union on output. Author's results support the hypothesis that the beneficial effects of currency unions on economic performance come through the promotion of trade, rather than through a commitment to non-inflationary monetary policy, or other macroeconomic influences.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2003Junichi Goto, Koichi Hamada NBER Working Paper Series. 1995. w5325.
This paper assesses the economic conditions for Asian countries to cope with the formation of EU and NAFTA. Is it desirable for them to form their own trading area? And, if desirable, is it better to have a closed one like the EAEC or a more open one like the APEC? Relying on public economics and the calculus of participation combined with the Dixit-Stiglitz-Krugman framework, we find the following: (i) the development of the EAEC by the leadership of Malaysia would be a natural response of Asian countries against two big blocs in the world, EU and NAFTA; (ii) it is natural for the United States to discourage this move because the formation of an economic bloc in Asia will have a negative economic impact on the non- Asian countries; (iii) it is natural for the U.S. to propose an opposing coalition like the APEC to nullify the possible economic impact of the EAEC; but (iv) perhaps the APEC will be a good roundabout way towards international free trade.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-10-2007Ulrich Sedelmeier Living Reviews in European Governance. 2007. Vol. 1. No. 3.
The Europeanisation of candidate countries and new members is a rather recent and still comparatively small, but - particularly since 2003 – a fast-growing research area. Research in this area has developed primarily in the context of the EU’s eastern enlargement. More recently, a small number of theoretically informed, book-length studies of the EU’s influence on the East Central European candidate countries have established the Europeanisation of applicant states as a distinctive research area. These studies fit within a common conceptual framework, which draws on the debate between rationalist and constructivist institutionalist theories in International Relations and Comparative Politics. This framework makes these studies highly compatible with analyses of the Europeanisation of member states, with which they share one key empirical finding, namely that the impact of the EU on candidate countries is differential across countries and issue areas. On the other hand, the theoretical implications of these findings appear more clear-cut than in the case of the Europeanisation of member states: rationalist institutionalism, with its focus on the external incentives underpinning EU conditionality, and on the material costs incurred by domestic veto players, appears well suited to explaining variation in the patterns of Europeanisation in candidate countries. The next stage of this research agenda concerns the impact of accession on the dynamics of pre-accession Europeanisation and how durable the patterns of candidate Europeanisation are in the post-accession stage.