Опубликовано на портале: 11-11-2004Myron J. Gordon, Eli Shapiro Management Science. 1956. Vol. 3. No. 1. P. 102-110.
The interest in capital equipment analysis that has been evident in the business literature of the past five years in the product of numerous social, economic, and business developments of the postwar period. No conclusive listing of these developments can be attempted here. However, four should be mentioned which are of particular importance in this search for a more systematic method for discovering, evaluating, and selecting investment opportunities. These are (1) the high level of capital outlays (in absolute terms); (2) the growth in the size of business firms; (3) the delegation of responsibility for initiating recommendations from top management to the profit center, which has been part of general movement toward decentralization; and (4) the growing use of "scientific management" in the operations of the business firm. In the balance of this paper, a method for determining this quantity is proposed and its use in capital budgeting is analyzed.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-11-2004John D.C. Little Management Science. 1970. Vol. 16. No. 8. P. B466-B485.
A manager tries to put together the various resources under his control into an activity that achieves his objectives. A model of his operation can assist him but probably will not unless it meets certain requirements. A model that is to be used by a manager should be simple, robust, easy to control, adaptive, as complete as possible, and easy to communicate with. By simple is meant easy to understand; by robust, hard to get absurd answers from; by easy to control, that the user knows what input data would be required to produce desired output answers; adaptive means that the model can be adjusted as new information is acquired; completeness implies that important phenomena will be included even if they require judgmental estimates of their effect; and, finally, easy to communicate with means that the manager can quickly and easily change inputs and obtain and understand the outputs. Such a model consists of a set of numerical procedures for processing data and judgments to assist managerial decision making and so will be called a decision calculus. An example from marketing is described. It is an on-line model for use by product managers on advertising budgeting questions. The model is currently in trial use by several product managers.