Всего статей в данном разделе : 974
Dividends Reconsidered [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 16-06-2006Alan Feld Tax Notes. 2003. Vol. 101. No. 10.
When JGTRRA 2003 reduced the income tax rate on dividends received by individuals to that of net capital gains, Feld explains, it also changed the relative attractiveness of alternative forms of corporate payout. Interest payments on shareholder debt and compensation to shareholder-employees, which generally provide superior returns to individuals, now yield less after-tax benefit in some circumstances than dividend payments. Feld says the change also calls into question the continuing function of a number of code provisions intended to prevent a bailout of corporate earnings at net capital gain rates and whose rules now affect primarily corporate rather than individual shareholders.
Dividends, Taxes, and Common Stock Prices: The Ex-Dividend Day Behavior of Common Stock Prices Before the Income Tax [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 02-10-2003Michael J. Barclay Journal of Financial Economics. 1987. Vol. 19. No. 1. P. 31-44.
This study examines the ex-dividend day behavior of common stock prices before the enactment of the federal income tax. On ex-dividend days during the pre-tax period, stock prices fell, on average, by the full amount of the dividend. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that (i) investors in the pre-tax period value dividends and capital gains as perfect substitutes and (ii) the differential taxation of dividends and capital gains has since caused investors to discount the value of taxable cash dividends in relation to capital gains.
Опубликовано на портале: 21-06-2006Sreedhar T. Bharath, Paolo Pasquariello, Guojun Wu Working Paper Series (SSRN). 2006.
Using an information asymmetry index based on measures of adverse selection developed by the market microstructure literature, we test if information asymmetry is the sole determinant of capital structure decisions as suggested by the pecking order theory. Our tests rely exclusively on measures of the market's assessment of adverse selection risk rather than on ex-ante firm characteristics. We find that information asymmetry does affect capital structure decisions of U.S. firms over the period 1973-2002, especially when firms' financing needs are low and when firms are financially constrained. We also find a significant degree of intertemporal variability in firms' degree of information asymmetry, as well as in its impact on firms' debt issuance decisions. Our findings based on the information asymmetry index are robust to sorting firms based on size and firm insiders' trading activity, two popular alternative proxies for the severity of adverse selection. Overall, this evidence explains why the pecking order theory is only partially successful in explaining all of firms' capital structure decisions. It also suggests that the theory finds support when its basic assumptions hold in the data, as it should reasonably be expected of any theory.
Опубликовано на портале: 14-06-2006Shenghui Tong, Ning Yixi Journal of Investing. 2004. Vol. 13. No. 4. P. 53-66.
The article studies the affect of capital structure on institutional investor choices. Institutional investors play a critical role in supervising the management of the companies. Most of the S&P 500 firms tend to have large institutional holdings. The finding of the study suggests that the capital structure influences stock picking choices of institutional investors. There is a negative relation between dividend yield and institutional ownership. There is limited evidence that institutional investors prefer firms with low debt ratios, high ratios of capital expenditures to assets, and high ratios of cash flow to sales.
Опубликовано на портале: 02-10-2003Christopher Polk, Owen Lamont Journal of Financial Economics. 2002. Vol. 63. No. 1. P. 51-77.
Does corporate diversification reduce shareholder value? Since firms endogenously choose to diversify, exogenous variation in diversification is necessary in order to draw inferences about the causal effect. We examine changes in the within-firm dispersion of characteristics, or "diversity." Following the inefficient internal capital markets hypothesis, we examine investment diversity. We find that exogenous changes in diversity, due to changes in industry investment, are negatively related to changes in firm value. Thus diversification destroys value. This finding is not caused by measurement error. We also find that exogenous changes in industry cash flow diversity are negatively related to changes in firm value
Опубликовано на портале: 03-10-2003Owen Lamont, Christopher Polk Journal of Financial Economics. 2002. Vol. 63. No. 1.
Does corporate diversification reduce shareholder value? Since firms endogenously choose to diversify, exogenous variation in diversification is necessary to draw inferences about the causal effect. We examine changes in the within-firm dispersion of industry investment, or "diversity". We find that exogenous changes in diversity, due to changes in industry investment, are negatively related to firm value. Thus diversification destroys value, consistent with the inefficient internal capital markets hypothesis. Measurement error does not cause this finding. We also find that exogenous changes in industry cash flow diversity are negatively related to firm value
Опубликовано на портале: 16-11-2004Geert Bekaert, Campbell R. Harvey, Christian Lundblad NBER Working Paper Series. 2001. w8245.
We show that equity market liberalizations, on average, lead to a one percent increase in annual real economic growth over a five-year period. The liberalization effect is not spuriously accounted for by macro-economic reforms and does not reflect a business cycle effect. Although financial liberalizations further financial development, measures of financial development fail to fully drive out the liberalization effect. The investment/GDP ratio increases post liberalization, with the investment partially financed by foreign capital inducing worsened trade balances. Differentiating across liberalizing countries, a large secondary school enrollment, a small government sector and an Anglo-Saxon legal system tend to enhance the liberalization effect. Finally, the conditional convergence effect is larger once financial liberalization is accounted for.
Does the Stock Market Overreact? [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2007Werner De Bondt, Richard H. Thaler Journal of Finance. 1985. Vol. 40. No. 3. P. 793-805.
Research in experimental psychology suggests that, in violation of Bayes' rule, most people tend to "overreact" to unexpected and dramatic news events. This study of market efficiency investigates whether such behavior affects stock prices. The empirical evidence, based on CRSP monthly return data, is consistent with the overreaction hypothesis. Substantial weak form market inefficiencies are discovered. The results also shed new light on the January returns earned by prior "winners" and "losers." Portfolios of losers experience exceptionally large January returns as late as five years after portfolio formation
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2007Lawrence H. Summers Journal of Finance. 1986. Vol. 41. No. 3. P. 591-601.
This paper examines the power of statistical tests commonly used to evaluate the efficiency of speculative markets. It shows that these tests have very low power. Market valuations can differ substantially and persistently from the rational expectation of the present value of cash flows without leaving statistically discernible traces in the pattern of ex-post returns. This observation implies that speculation is unlikely to ensure rational valuations, since similar problems of identification plague both financial economists and would be speculators
Do financial institutions matter? [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-10-2008Franklin Allen Journal of Finance. 2001. Vol. 56. No. 4. P. 1165-1175 .
In standard asset pricing theory, investors are assumed to invest directly in financial markets. The role of financial institutions is ignored. The focus in corporate finance is on agency problems. How do you ensure that managers act in shareholders' interests? There is an inconsistency in assuming that when you give your money to a financial institution there is no agency problem, but when you give it to a firm there is. It is argued that both areas need to take proper account of the role of financial institutions and markets. Appropriate concepts for analyzing particular situations should be used.
Опубликовано на портале: 21-06-2006Jan Mouritsen Management Accounting Research. 1998. Vol. 9. No. 4. P. 461-482.
This paper compares and contrasts Economic Value Added (EVATM) and Intellectual Capital (IC) as two technologies of managing oriented towards encouraging growth. The analysis suggests that EVATMand IC contrasts greatly. EVATMis a financial management system based on radical delegation and ‘empowerment’ and which therefore directs attention to the results created by managers. Based on financial micro-theory, EVATMis a performance measure that attempts to account more properly for the cost of capital, but more than that, it is also a management control system which seeks to create radically independent business units and minimize corporate staff. IC is a different control system concerned to encourage endogenous growth implemented via loosely coupled sets of non-financial measurements that become strong via stories and metaphors about the post-modern firm in the post-modern world. Here, based on theories of organizational knowledge and competence development, emphasis is put on mobilizing white collar productivity and creativity based on some form of evolutionary economics or resource-based theory. While EVATMlooks to managers as the movers of change, IC seems more systematically to promote the creativity possessed by employees
Economic Forces and the Stock Market [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 12-11-2004Nai-Fu Chen, Richard Roll, Stephen A. Ross Journal of Business. 1986. Vol. 59. No. 3. P. 383-403.
This paper tests whether innovations in macroeconomic variables are risks that are rewarded in the stock market. Financial theory suggests that the following macroeconomic variables should systematically affect stock market returns: the spread between long and short interest rates, expected and unexpected inflation, industrial production, and the spread between high- and low-grade bonds. We find that these sources of risk are significantly priced. Furthermore, neither the market portfolio nor aggregate consumption are priced separately. We also find that oil price risk is not separately rewarded in the stock market.
Economic Value Added (EVA) as a Proxy for Market Value Added (MVA) and Accounting Earnings: Empirical Evidence from the Business Cycle [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 21-06-2006John J. Kim, Jae-Hyeon Ahn, J. K. Yun Journal of Accounting & Finance Research. 2004. Vol. 12. No. 1. P. 40-48.
Further understanding of the 'significance of EVA' issue, i.e., 1) whether stock prices follow EVA better than a traditional accounting measure such as earning per share (EPS), 2) how correlation between EVA and MVA are affected by two different economic periods, and 3) whether there is effectiveness of EVA at the industry level. We find no evidence that increase in the change in EVA is attributable to increases in the market-adjusted returns (MAR) regardless of the stage of the business cycle. However, strong positive correlation between EVA and MVA from both parametric and nonparametric tests are more evident during the contraction period. Finally, we also find that the market response to accounting earning, not EVA, is more prone to volatile swings in the manufacturing sector than non-manufacturing industries.
Efficient Capital Markets II [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 16-11-2007Eugene F. Fama Journal of Finance. 1991. Vol. 46. No. 5. P. 1575-1617.
SEQUELS ARE RARELY AS good as the originals, so I approach this review of the market efficiency literature with trepidation. The task is thornier than it was 20 years ago, when work on efficiency was rather new. The literature is now so large that a full review is impossible, and is not attempted here. Instead, I discuss the work that I find most interesting, and I offer my views on what we have learned from the research on market efficiency.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-11-2004Geert Bekaert, Campbell R. Harvey, Christian Lundblad NBER Working Paper Series. 2000. w7763.
We provide an analysis of real economic growth prospects in emerging markets after financial liberalizations. In contrast with previous research, we identify the financial liberalization dates and examine the influence of liberalizations while controlling for a number of other macroeconomic and financial variables. Our work also introduces an econometric methodology that allows us to use extensive time-series as well as cross-sectional information for our tests. We find across a number of different specifications that financial liberalizations are associated with significant increases in real economic growth.