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Финансовая экономика - это область теоретико-прикладных знаний о законах функционирования финансовых потоков и отношений между всеми субъектами экономической системы... (подробнее...)

Статьи

Всего статей в данном разделе : 38

Опубликовано на портале: 14-06-2006
J. R. Franks, J. J. Pringle Journal of Finance. 1982.  Vol. 37. No. 3. P. 751-763. 
In this paper we consider the role of financial intermediaries in the valuation of firms and projects. We show that security prices should reflect both used and unused debt capacity if some corporations can act as financial intermediaries and can capture the tax benefits of debt capacity unused by the operating firm. We also provide some reasons why the value of the firm might be increased if the financing and operating risks of the firm are separated and financial intermediaries issue debt rather than the unit operating the asset.
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Опубликовано на портале: 21-06-2006
Saumitra N. Bhaduri Applied Financial Economy. 2002.  Vol. 12. No. 9. P. 655-665. 
Existing empirical research on capital structure has been largely confined to the United States and a few other advanced countries. This paper attempts to study the capital structure choice of Less Developed Countries (LDCs) through a case study of the Indian Corporate sector. The objective is to develop a model that accounts for the possibility of restructuring costs in attaining an optimal capital structure and addresses the measurement problem that arises due to the unobservable nature of the attributes influencing the optimal capital structure. The evidence presented here suggests that the optimal capital structure choice can be influenced by factors such as growth, cash flow, size, and product and industry characteristics. The results also confirm the existence of restructuring costs in attaining an optimal capital structure.
Опубликовано на портале: 21-06-2006
Sreedhar T. Bharath, Paolo Pasquariello, Guojun Wu Working Paper Series (SSRN). 2006. 
Using an information asymmetry index based on measures of adverse selection developed by the market microstructure literature, we test if information asymmetry is the sole determinant of capital structure decisions as suggested by the pecking order theory. Our tests rely exclusively on measures of the market's assessment of adverse selection risk rather than on ex-ante firm characteristics. We find that information asymmetry does affect capital structure decisions of U.S. firms over the period 1973-2002, especially when firms' financing needs are low and when firms are financially constrained. We also find a significant degree of intertemporal variability in firms' degree of information asymmetry, as well as in its impact on firms' debt issuance decisions. Our findings based on the information asymmetry index are robust to sorting firms based on size and firm insiders' trading activity, two popular alternative proxies for the severity of adverse selection. Overall, this evidence explains why the pecking order theory is only partially successful in explaining all of firms' capital structure decisions. It also suggests that the theory finds support when its basic assumptions hold in the data, as it should reasonably be expected of any theory.
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Опубликовано на портале: 21-06-2006
Patrick Bolton, Xavier Freixas Journal of Political Economy. 2000.  Vol. 108. No. 2.
This paper proposes a model of financial markets and corporate finance, with asymmetric information and no taxes, where equity issues, bank debt, and bond financing coexist in equilibrium. The relationship banking aspect of financial intermediation is emphasized: firms turn to banks as a source of investment mainly because banks are good at helping them through times of financial distress. This financial flexibility is costly since banks face costs of capital themselves (which they attempt to minimize through securitization). To avoid this intermediation cost, firms may turn to bond or equity financing, but bonds imply an inefficient liquidation cost and equity an informational dilution cost. We show that in equilibrium the riskier firms prefer bank loans, the safer ones tap the bond markets, and the ones in between prefer to issue both equity and bonds. This segmentation is broadly consistent with stylized facts.
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Опубликовано на портале: 21-06-2006
Roger G. Ibbotson, William N. Goetzmann Yale ICF Working Paper. 2005.  No. 05-04.
We summarize some of our own past findings and place them in the context of the historical development of the idea of the equity risk premium and its empirical measurement by financial economists. In particular, we focus on how the theory of compensation for investment risk developed in the 20th century in tandem with the empirical analysis of historical investment performance. Finally, we update our study of the historical performance of the New York Stock Exchange over the period 1792 to the present, and include a measure of the U.S. equity risk premium over more than two centuries. This last section is based upon indices constructed from individual stock and dividend data collected over a decade of research at the Yale School of Management, and contributions by other scholars.
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Опубликовано на портале: 06-10-2004
H. De Angelo, Ronald W. Masulis Journal of Financial Economics. 1980.  Vol. 8. No. 1. P. 3-29. 
In this paper, a model of corporate leverage choice is formulated in which corporate and differential personal taxes exist and supply side adjustments by firms enter into the determination of equilibrium relative prices of debt and equity. The presence of corporate tax shield substitutes for debt such as accounting depreciation, depletion allowances, and investment tax credits is shown to imply a market equilibrium in which each firm has a unique interior optimum leverage decision (with or without leverage-related costs). The optimal leverage model yields a number of interesting predictions regarding cross-sectional and time-series properties of firms' capital structures. Extant evidence bearing on these predictions is examined.
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Опубликовано на портале: 21-06-2006
Rogir E. Cannaday, Tyler T. Yang Journal of Real Estate Finance & Economics. 1996.  Vol. 13. No. 3. P. 263-271. 
This article examines the optimal leverage strategy for real estate investors who are investing in income-producing properties. Within a discounted cash-flow context, the investment objective for the equity investor is to maximize the contribution to net present value of using mortgage financing. Utilizing more debt decreases the required equity investment and increases the size of the tax shelter. On the other hand, as the loan-to-value ratio increases, the interest rate charged by the lender increases, which indicates a higher cost of debt. This article goes beyond the simple conventional wisdom that debt financing should be used when financial leverage is positive by developing an equation that allows one to determine the optimal level of debt financing to use when positive leverage is possible. The optimal loan-to-value ratio is found to be a function of the investor's characteristics. Several hypotheses about the relationships between such an optimal loan-to-value ratio and the investor's characteristics are derived.
Опубликовано на портале: 16-06-2006
Magda Bianco, Giovanna Nicodano European Economic Review. 2006.  Vol. 50. No. 4. P. 937-961. 
This paper suggests that debt should be raised by subsidiaries in order to exploit the limited liability of the holding company. However, when this behavior increases the cost of funds, the holding might prefer to raise debt to a point where it would also default when subsidiaries are insolvent. After accounting for standard controls, we find that holding companies in Italian pyramids have higher leverage than subsidiaries and that the cash-flow share of the entrepreneur in the subsidiary does not play a significant role. These findings are consistent with the implications of our model of group capital structure.
Опубликовано на портале: 14-06-2006
Mark G. Brown Euromoney. 2005.  Vol. 36. No. 433. P. 29-29. 
This article focuses on the leveraged buyout (LBO) market in Europe. Two contrasting European leveraged buyouts have shown how the leveraged finance market is developing in 2005. While ideas like Cablecom's refinancing and Greece's first ever LBO are being funded largely in the bond markets, the secondary buyout of German motorway service station chain Tank & Rast backed the trend and used senior debt. Allianz Capital Partners, Lufthansa and funds advised by Apax Partners agreed to sell their shares in Tank & Rast to British private-equity house Terra Firma Capital Partners in November 2004. Terra had been looking at the acquisition for more than a year. Meanwhile,JP Morgan and Deutsche Bank are acting as arrangers and bookrunners on the LBO of 80.87% in Telecom Italia's Greek mobile operator Tim Hellas Communications.
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию
Опубликовано на портале: 21-06-2006
Mark G. Brown Euromoney. 2005.  Vol. 36. No. 433. P. 29. 
This article focuses on the leveraged buyout (LBO) market in Europe. Two contrasting European leveraged buyouts have shown how the leveraged finance market is developing in 2005. While ideas like Cablecom's refinancing and Greece's first ever LBO are being funded largely in the bond markets, the secondary buyout of German motorway service station chain Tank & Rast backed the trend and used senior debt. Allianz Capital Partners, Lufthansa and funds advised by Apax Partners agreed to sell their shares in Tank & Rast to British private-equity house Terra Firma Capital Partners in November 2004. Terra had been looking at the acquisition for more than a year. Meanwhile,JP Morgan and Deutsche Bank are acting as arrangers and bookrunners on the LBO of 80.87% in Telecom Italia's Greek mobile operator Tim Hellas Communications.
Опубликовано на портале: 26-08-2007
Shaun A. Bond, Peter Scott SSRN Working Paper Series. 2006. 
The two main theories of capital structure are tested on a sample of 18 UK listed real estate companies, over a seven year period to 2004. Using dynamic specifications of the models inferences about firm financing behaviour can be made. Specifically: (1) Where firms turn to external financing, debt constitutes the majority of securities issued. Debt issuance tracks the need for external finance closely, and is robust to periods when firms run financing 'surpluses' – debt is paid down during these periods. (2) The pecking order specification dominates the trade-off theory in a direct comparison of the dynamic models. The power of this result is much higher than any previous studies. Real estate financing appears to sit comfortably as part of a broader capital structure framework in which information asymmetries drive firm financing behaviour.
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Опубликовано на портале: 21-06-2006
Roberto Wessels, Sheridan Titman Journal of Finance. 1988.  Vol. 43. No. 1. P. 1-20. 
This paper analyzes the explanatory power of some of the recent theories of optimal capital structure. The study extends empirical work on capital structure theory in three ways. First, it examines a much broader set of capital structure theories, many of which have not previously been analyzed empirically. Second, since the theories have different empirical implications in regard to different types of debt instruments, the authors analyze measures of short-term, long-term, and convertible debt rather than an aggregate measure of total debt. Third, the study uses a factor-analytic technique that mitigates the measurement problems encountered when working with proxy variables.
Опубликовано на портале: 14-06-2006
Sheridan Titman Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis. 1985.  Vol. 20. No. 1. P. 19-28. 
This paper demonstrates that the various market imperfections that have been suggested to explain observed portfolio choices and capital structures can be circumvented if securities (e.g., options) can be traded that simulate forward contracts on stock. It is shown that if the risk-adjusted returns to bondholders exceed the returns to stockholders (to reflect personal tax differences) tax-exempt investors will prefer a combination of these synthetic forward purchases and corporate bonds to purchasing stock directly. They will not, as has been suggested, include stock in their portfolios for diversification purposes when they can alternatively purchase securities that simulate forward contracts. It is also shown that firms that can sell synthetic forward positions on their own stock can essentially guarantee that sufficient funds will be available to meet their bond obligations. This gives firms the opportunity to increase their debt levels without increasing the possibility of bankruptcy and the corresponding administrative and agency costs.
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Опубликовано на портале: 21-06-2006
Richard J. Fairchild Working Paper Series (SSRN). 2006. 
We examine the combined effects of managerial overconfidence, asymmetric information and moral hazard problems on the manager's choice of financing (debt or equity). We demonstrate the following; a) in the asymmetric information model, overconfidence is unambiguously bad. It induces excessive welfare-reducing debt, b) in the moral hazard model, the effect of overconfidence is ambiguous. It has a positive effect by inducing higher managerial effort. However, it may lead to excessive use of debt and higher expected bankruptcy costs. Overall, we contribute to the debate on managerial overconfidence by demonstrating that managerial overconfidence is not necessarily bad for shareholders.
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Опубликовано на портале: 21-06-2006
Andrew Vivian Working Paper Series (SSRN). 2005. 
We examine the UK equity premium over more than a century using dividend growth to estimate expectations of capital gains employing the approach of Fama and French (2002). Since 1951 estimated equity premia implied by dividend growth have been much lower than that produced by average stock returns for the UK market as a whole; a finding corroborated by almost every industry sub-sector. Our empirical analysis suggests this is primarily due to a declining discount rate, during the latter part of the 20th Century, which would rationally stimulate unanticipated equity price rises during this period. Thus, we conclude that historical stock returns over recent decades have been above investors' expectations.
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