Journal of Financial Economics
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Опубликовано на портале: 03-10-2003Richard Roll Journal of Financial Economics. 1977. Vol. 4. No. 2. P. 129-176.
Testing the two-parameter asset pricing theory is difficult (and currently infeasible). Due to a mathematical equivalence between the individual return/beta'linearity relation and the market portfolio's mean-variance efficiency, any valid test presupposes complete knowledge of the true market portfolio's composition. This implies, inter alia, that every individual asset must be included in a correct test. Errors of inference inducible by incomplete tests are discussed and some ambiguities in published tests are explained.
Опубликовано на портале: 02-10-2003Michael J. Barclay, Robert H. Litzenberger Journal of Financial Economics. 1988. Vol. 21. No. 1. P. 71-99.
This paper examines the intraday market response to announcements of new equity issues. For fifteen minutes following the announcement, there is abnormally high volume and a -1.3% average return. There is also a small, but significant, negative average return in the hour before the announcement. Issue size, intended use of proceeds, and estimated profitability of new investment are uncorrelated with the announcement effect. After the issuance of new shares, there is a significant price recovery of 1.5%. This evidence is inconsistent with many theoretical rationales for the negative market reaction to new equity issue announcements.
Bid-ask spreads and the avoidance of odd-eighth quotes on Nasdaq: An examination of exchange listings [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 02-10-2003Michael J. Barclay Journal of Financial Economics. 1997. Vol. 45. No. 1. P. 35-60.
This paper examines 472 securities that were listed on Nasdaq and moved to the NYSE or Amex. When Nasdaq market makers avoid odd-eighth quotes, bid-ask spreads are large and decline dramatically with exchange listing. When market makers use both odd and even eighths, spreads are smaller and decline only slightly with exchange listing. The large spreads observed when Nasdaq market makers avoid odd-eighths cannot be explained by security-specific characteristics. Instead, the results support the conclusion that the avoidance of odd-eighth quotes is used as a coordination device among Nasdaq market makers to maintain supra-competitive bid-ask spreads.
Dividends, Taxes, and Common Stock Prices: The Ex-Dividend Day Behavior of Common Stock Prices Before the Income Tax [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 02-10-2003Michael J. Barclay Journal of Financial Economics. 1987. Vol. 19. No. 1. P. 31-44.
This study examines the ex-dividend day behavior of common stock prices before the enactment of the federal income tax. On ex-dividend days during the pre-tax period, stock prices fell, on average, by the full amount of the dividend. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that (i) investors in the pre-tax period value dividends and capital gains as perfect substitutes and (ii) the differential taxation of dividends and capital gains has since caused investors to discount the value of taxable cash dividends in relation to capital gains.
Investing in equity mutual funds [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 03-10-2003Lubos Pastor, Robert F. Stambaugh Journal of Financial Economics. 2002. Vol. 63. No. 3. P. 351-380.
Authors construct optimal portfolios of equity funds by combining historical returns on funds and passive indexes with prior views about asset pricing and skill. By including both benchmark and nonbenchmark indexes, authors distinguish pricing-model inaccuracy from managerial skill. Modest confidence in a pricing model helps construct portfolios with high Sharpe ratios. Investing in active mutual funds can be optimal even for investors who believe managers cannot outperfofm passive indexes. Optimal portfolios exclude hot-hand funds even for investors who believe momentum is priced. Our large universe of funds offers no close substitutes for the Fama-French and momentum benchmarks.
Опубликовано на портале: 02-10-2003Michael R. Gibbons Journal of Financial Economics. 1982. Vol. 10. No. 1. P. 3-27.
A variety of financial models are cast as nonlinear parameter restrictions on multivariate regression models, and the framework seems well suited for empirical purposes. Aside from eliminating the errors-in-the-variables problem which has plagued a number of past studies, the suggested methodology increases the precision of estimated risk premiums by as much as 76%. In addition, the approach leads naturally to a likelihood ratio test of the parameter restrictions as a test for a financial model. This testing framework has considerable power over past test statistics. With no additional variable beyond , the substantive content of the CAPM is rejected for the period 1926–1975 with a significance level less than 0.001.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-10-2003Shmuel Kandel, Robert F. Stambaugh Journal of Financial Economics. 1987. Vol. 18. No. 1. P. 61-90.
A framework is presented for investigating the mean-variance efficiency of an unobservable portfolio based on its correlation with a proxy portfolio. A sensitivity analysis derives the highest correlation between the proxy and a portfolio that reverses the inference of a test of SHarpe-Lintner tangency. For example, the maximum correlation between the value-weighted NYSE-AMEX portfolio and a portfolio inferred tangent ranges from 0.76 to 0.48. We also test whether the correlation between the proxy and the tangent portfolio exceeds a given level. This hypothesis is often rejected for the NYSE-AMEX proxy at a correlation of 0.7.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-10-2003Robert C. Merton Journal of Financial Economics. 1980. Vol. 8. No. 4. P. 323-361.
The expected market return is a number frequently required for the solution of many investment and corporate finance problems, but by comparison with other financial variables, there has been little research on estimating this expected return. Current practice for estimating the expected market return adds the historical average realized excess market returns to the current observed interest rate. While this model explicitly reflects the dependence of the market return on the interest rate, it fails to account for the effect of changes in the level of market risk. Three models of equilibrium expected market returns which reflect this dependence are analyzed in this paper. Estimation procedures which incorporate the prior restriction that equilibrium expected excess returns on the market must be positive are derived and applied to return data for the period 1926–1978. The principal conclusions from this exploratory investigation are: (1) in estimating models of the expected market return, the non-negativity restriction of the expected excess return should be explicity included as part of the specification: (2) estimators which use realized returns should be adjusted for heteroscedasticity.
Опубликовано на портале: 02-10-2003Michael J. Barclay, Neil D. Pearson, Michael Steven Weisbach Journal of Financial Economics. 1998. Vol. 49. No. 1. P. 3-43.
Despite the fact that taxable investors would prefer to defer the realization of capital gains indefinitely, most open-end mutual funds regularly realize and distribute a large portion of their gains. We present a model in which unrealized gains in the fund's portfolio increase expected future taxable distributions, and thus increase the present value of a new investor's tax liability. In equilibrium, managers interested in attracting new investors pass through taxable capital gains to reduce the overhang of unrealized gains. This model contains a number of empirical predictions that are consistent with data on actual fund overhangs.
Portfolio Return Autocorrelation [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 25-10-2007Timothy S. Mech Journal of Financial Economics. 1993. Vol. 34. No. 3. P. 307-334.
This paper investigates whether portfolio return autocorrelation can be explained by time-varying expected returns, nontrading, stale limit orders, market maker inventory policy, or transaction costs. Evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that transaction costs cause portfolio autocorrelation by slowing price adjustment. I develop a transaction-cost model which predicts that prices adjust faster when changes in valuation are large in relation to the bid-ask spread. Cross-sectional tests support this prediction, but time-series tests do not.
Опубликовано на портале: 02-10-2003Michael J. Barclay, Jerold B. Warner Journal of Financial Economics. 1993. Vol. 34. No. 3. P. 281-305.
We examine the proportion of a stock's cumulative price change that occurs in each trade-size category, using transactions data for a sample of NYSE firms. Although the majority of trades are small, most of the cumulative stock-price change is due to medium-size trades. This evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that informed trades are concentrated in the medium-size category, and that price movements are due mainly to informed traders' private information.
Опубликовано на портале: 25-10-2007Kenneth R. French, Richard Roll Journal of Financial Economics. 1986. Vol. 17. No. 1. P. 5-26.
Asset prices are much more volatile during exchange trading hours than during non-trading hours. This paper considers three explanations for this phenomenon: (1) volatility is caused by public information which is more likely to arrive during normal business hours; (2) volatility is caused by private information which affects prices when informed investors trade; and (3) volatility is caused by pricing errors that occur during trading. Although a significant fraction of the daily variance is caused by mispricing, the behavior of returns around exchange holidays suggests that private information is the principle factor behind high trading-time variances.
Опубликовано на портале: 02-11-2007Gregory N. Mankiw, Stephen P. Zeldes Journal of Financial Economics. 1991. Vol. 29. No. 1. P. 97-112.
Only one-fourth of U.S. families own stock. This paper examines whether the consumption of stockholders differs from the consumption of non-stockholders and whether these differences help explain the empirical failures of the consumption-based CAPM. Household panel data are used to construct time series on the consumption of each group. The results indicate that the consumption of stockholders is more volatile than that of non-stockholders and is more highly correlated with the excess return on the stock market. These differences help explain the size of the equity premium, although they do not fully resolve the equity premium puzzle