Journal of Economic Literature
Опубликовано на портале: 29-10-2008Rafael La Porta, Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes, Andrei Shleifer Journal of Economic Literature. 2008. Vol. 46. No. 2. P. 285-332.
In the last decade, economists have produced a considerable body of research suggesting that the historical origin of a country's laws is highly correlated with a broad range of its legal rules and regulations, as well as with economic outcomes. We summarize this evidence and attempt a unified interpretation. We also address several objections to the empirical claim that legal origins matter. Finally, we assess the implications of this research for economic reform.
U.S. Earnings Levels and Earnings Inequality: A Review of Recent Trends and Proposed Explanations [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-03-2007Richard J. Murnane, Frank Levy Journal of Economic Literature. 1992. Vol. 30. No. 3. P. 1333-81.
The article studies the U.S. earning trends since 1950 and gives explanations for the inequality in earnings. Both slow growth and increased inequality appear in the comparison of adult male earnings distributions for 1979 and 1987. Trends in women's earnings paint a somewhat brighter picture. Women, like men, have experienced slow hourly wage growth and growing wage inequality. But in terms of annual earnings, both factors have been offset by changes in hours worked. The result is a significant increase in the proportion of women who earn $20,000 a year or more. A combination of shifts in supply and shifts in demand is necessary to explain the observed trends between these groups. A critical aspect of supply shifts was the entry into the labor market of the well-educated baby boom generation. Demand shifts can be characterized as a long-term trend toward increasing relative demand for highly skilled workers. The growth in within group earnings inequality has many potential explanations, but it is not well understood and contains opportunities for future research.