American Journal of Economics and Sociology
An Extension on the Traditional Theory of Customer Discrimination: Customers Versus Customers [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-09-2003Stephanie O. Crofton American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2003. Vol. 62. No. 2. P. 319-.
This study provides an extension on the traditional theory of customer discrimination. The traditional theory looks at customer discrimination via a case in which customers discriminate against a certain type of employee. This paper considers a case of customer discrimination in which customers discriminate against another group of customers. This paper argues that if women choose to attend an all-women college, they are engaging in this previously unexamined form of customer discrimination. Economic theory predicts that firms catering to customers who discriminate will charge higher prices. Thus, this study tests for the existence of customer discrimination by estimating a tuition equation at women's colleges and coeducational schools using ordinary least squares and a dummy-interaction technique. This study finds that, all else held constant, women's colleges do charge higher tuition rates.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-02-2004Raimo Tuomela American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2003. Vol. 62. No. 1. P. 123-165.
Основной характеристикой социальных институтов, по мнению автора, является то, что они основаны на коллективном одобрении, принятии. Принятие какого-то принципа со стороны некоторых членов группы предполагает поддержание с их стороны соответствующего социального отношения (we-attitude). Члены группы должны быть привержены тому, что они приняли. Социальные институты рассматриваются как управляемые нормами социальные практики, которые дают практикам или некоторым элементам, входящим в эти практики, новый социальный и концептуальный статус. Это требует того, чтобы некоторые из норм были конститутивными в противоположность "случайно" регулирующим.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-09-2003Stavros Ioannides American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2003. Vol. 62. No. 3. P. 533-.
We explore the relevance to the theory of economic organization of the distinction introduced by Hayek between two kinds of social order: spontaneous orders and organizations. We argue that Hayek's ideas lead to an understanding of the business firm as a process, which comes very close to some of the core notions of the evolutionary theory of the firm, while they still view the firm as the outcome of a contract among asset owners. First of all, we put forth a simple conceptual schema in order to differentiate between contracts that lead to the formation of an organization and ordinary market contracts. We then explore the conditions for an understanding of the firm as a set of interconnected processes, rather than as an end state. Finally, we introduce the concept of purposeful direction as an important condition for the existence of the firm and we show the history-contingent character of the firm's growth.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-09-2003Frank A. Hindriks American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2003. Vol. 62. No. 1. P. 185-.
Searle used to analyze institutional facts in terms of the constitutive rule. In his more elaborate account in The Construction of Social Reality he introduces the notion of a status function. The "counts as" locution is central to both the constitutive rule and the status function. The main question I ask is what role is left for the constitutive rule after the introduction of the status function. In order to answer this question, I start by analyzing the notion of a status function. An examination of the relation between status functions and the function of representation reveals that the former is a species of the latter. An exploration of the relation between status functions and collective acceptance reveals that Searle does not provide an argument as to why collective acceptance is required for institutional facts. Searle's new account goes beyond his old analysis of institutional facts in terms of the constitutive rule. Rather than declaring the notion to be redundant, Searle assigns the constitutive rule a new role: it is to account for the fact that there can be counterfeit instances of a subclass of institutions, including, for example, that of money. This subclass consists of institutions that are codified.
The Return on Women's Human Capital and the Role of Male Attitudes Toward Working Wives: Gender Roles, Work Interruption, and Women's Earnings in Taiwan [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-09-2003Hwei-Lin Chuang, Hsih-Yin Lee American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2003. Vol. 62. No. 2. P. 435-.
This study empirically investigates women's work interruption behavior in Taiwan and this behavior's influence on women's earnings. The most striking finding from our analysis of women's work history patterns is that a husband's negative attitude toward a working wife will more greatly discourage his wife from attaching to the labor market than will the presence of young children in the family. Thus, it is critical to educate men to give up their traditional attitudes toward gender roles in order to raise the female labor force participation rate in Taiwan. As to the effect of work interruption on earnings, a depreciation rate of 2.8[percent] is found for women with at least a high-school level of education, while no penalty of foregone experience is shown for less-educated women. Since this depreciation effect may discourage women from re-entering the labor market, government programs encouraging self-employment should be helpful, as self-employed women find it easier to overcome the conflict between family obligations and work needs.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-09-2003David Dequech American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2003. Vol. 62. No. 3. P. 509-.
The paper discusses the role of uncertainty in economic sociology, aiming to clarify some controversial issues in the related literature. Initially,some conceptual remarks are made about the relation between economic sociology, neoclassical economics, and rational choice theory. Next, in light of the existing literature on uncertainty and economic sociology, we distinguish between complexity and different types of uncertainty. We also identify different versions of the maximization hypothesis and examine their relations to the different types of uncertainty. Then we defend a concept of fundamental uncertainty that emphasizes the role of institutions. A theory that combines fundamental uncertainty and institutions should emphasize not only the existence of behavior in accordance with institutions, but also the possibility of creative, bold, unconventional behavior, discussed next, as people may use the knowledge provided by institutions to go against the tide. Finally, we suggest that the primary distinction should be that between approaches to economic issues, not between disciplines.