Всего статей в данном разделе : 3404
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Rebeca Raijman Journal of Socio-Economics. 2001. Vol. 30. No. 5. P. 393-410.
This paper focuses on Mexican immigrants who are considering to start a business but do not so for various reasons. It queries the individuals at the very preliminary stages of the process when they are contemplating the alternatives, so it is well suited to learn about the determinants of business ownership. The findings demonstrate the potential value of personality measures for predicting who will want to start a business. The results underscore that having close family members in business exposes individuals to role models and sources of financial and nonfinancial help that might put business ownership within reach of people with modest resources. Economic resources in the household, in the form of financial investments, also affect the wish to start a business because they furnish available capital for the start-up.
Developing Difference: Social Organization and the Rise of the Auto Industries of South Korea, Taiwan, Spain, and Argentina [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Nicole Woolsey Biggart, Mauro F. Guillén American Sociological Review. 1999. Vol. 64. No. 5. P. 722-747.
Theories of economic development as diverse as modernization, dependency, world-system, and market reform take a "critical factor" view. Proponents of each theory argue that countries fail to develop because of an obstacle to economic growth. We argue instead that neither a critical factor nor a single path leads to economic development; viable paths vary. Economic growth depends on linking a country's historically developed patterns of social organization to the opportunities of global markets. We formulate a sociological theory of cross-national comparative advantage including not only economic factor endowments but also institutionalized patterns of authority and organization. Such patterns legitimize certain actors and certain relationships among those actors, which facilitate development success in some activities but not in others. We illustrate this approach to understanding development outcomes with a comparative analysis of the difficult rise of the automobile assembly and components industries in South Korea, Taiwan, Spain, and Argentina.
Опубликовано на портале: 24-03-2008Richard Whitley Industrial and Corporate Change. 2002. Vol. 11. No. 3. P. 497-528 .
The recent development of the biotechnology and computer industries has highlighted the variety of ways in which firms in different countries and sectors can develop innovative competences. Four aspects are particularly important: the degree of involvement in the public science system, involvement in industry collaborations, reliance on specialist skills of individuals, and the ability to change collective competences radically. National and regional variations in these result from differences in dominant institutional frameworks. In addition to the organization of capital and labour markets and the structure of inter-firm relations, these frameworks include the nature of the public science system. Particularly important features of these systems include: the organization of research training, the flexibility of researchers and organizations in developing novel goals and approaches, the organization of scientific careers, and the prevalent science and technology policies of the state. Distinct combinations of these institutional features have become established in different market economies and led to contrasting styles of innovative competence development being adopted. These in turn help to explain continuing variations in patterns of technological change between countries.
Опубликовано на портале: 18-12-2007Ronald Philip Dore Corporate Governance: An International Review. 2005. Vol. 13. No. 3. P. 437-446.
There are good reasons for national differences in corporate governance, differences in the distributional outcomes desired and differences in motivational resources; material sticks and carrots are not the only ways of keeping top managers efficient, honest and dynamic. Yet, too often discussions of corporate governance assume the Anglo-Saxon model to be normal and others“deviant”– a notion to be challenged, but nevertheless the dominant assumption among the“reformers” of corporate governance in Japan and Germany. Most of the reforms in those two countries over the past decade have purported to be about making top managers more honest and efficient. In fact their purport has more often been to change distributional outcomes, favouring shareholders at the expense of employees.
Опубликовано на портале: 07-02-2008Wolfgang Streeck, Colin Crouch, Robert Boyer, Bruno Amable, Peter A. Hall, Gregory Jackson Socio-Economic Review. 2005. Vol. 3. No. 2. P. 359-382.
Martin Höpner's paper was written to structure discussions at a workshop of the ‘Complementarity Project’, which was held in Paris, 26–27 September 2003. The project was organized by Bruno Amable and Robert Boyer (CEPREMAP, Paris), Colin Crouch (EUI, Florence), Martin Höpner and Wolfgang Streeck (Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies, Köln). The subject of the workshop was the complementarity, real or imagined, of financial markets and industrial relations in present-day ‘varieties of capitalism’. Apart from the organizers, participants included Patrick Le Gales, Peter Hall, Gregory Jackson, Bruce Kogut, David Marsden and Pascal Petit. In the following we document short excerpts from five out of nine ‘reaction papers’ written by participants in advance of the workshop. The selections were made by Wolfgang Streeck.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Nicholas Thoburn Economy and Society. 2002. Vol. 31. No. 3. P. 434 - 460.
This article considers the place of difference in Marx's politics through an exploration of his categories of the lumpenproletariat and the proletariat. Far from a simple set of class subjects or empirical peoples, these two categories are argued to describe particular modes of political composition. Despite the frisson of difference and excess which is usually associated with Marx's lumpenproletariat, it is argued to describe a mode of composition - and, in relation to anarchism, a politics - oriented not towards difference and becoming, but towards present identity. The proletariat, on the other hand, is shown to be not a People, historical Subject or identity, but a 'minor' political mode of composition immanent to the manifolds of capitalism, and premised on the condition that, as Deleuze puts it, 'the people are missing'.
Differential effects of parental involvement on cognitive and behavioral outcomes by socioeconomic status [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Ralph B. McNeal Journal of Socio-Economics. 2001. Vol. 30. No. 2. P. 171-179.
Using the concepts of cultural and social capital, a theoretical framework is provided for why there would exist differential effects of parental involvement across cognitive and behavioral outcomes. The variable relationships between involvement and each outcome are investigated by socioeconomic status.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jorg Guido Hulsmann American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 713-727.
One of the great achievements of economic science is the explanation of the benefits of the division of labor in market economies. However, despite its merits this utilitarian explanation is insufficient as an account for the widespread division of labor. This insufficiency stems from the normative shortcomings of the harmony-of-interests doctrine, which cannot justify the respect of private-property titles and, therefore, cannot explain on purely utilitarian grounds the fact that the division of labor is as widespread as it in fact is. Mariam Thalos has recently provided a partial solution to this problem by arguing that religious belief in God performs a public function that facilitates human cooperation. In critical elaboration of her thesis, the division of labor is explained by taking into account a different aspect of human reason, namely, discursive rationality.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Gary D. Lynne Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 3. P. 267-288.
Microeconomics envisions a single decision-maker in a firm or household who is presumed to experience economic relationships only in markets. This theory is largely silent regarding the moral dimension, i.e., the nature of the invisible hand, and how it unconsciously affects the self acting in said markets. Amitai Etzioni, the founder of socioeconomics, offered the vision of the moral dimension as a component of the self. Metaeconomics operationalizes this vision by making explicit the Strict Father moral dimension in the invisible hand and recognizing interdependence of self when Nurturant Parent morality is operant. It builds upon a tripartite, multiple-self concept, with a mediating adult who balances the pleasures with the moral dimension in finding a satisfactory mix of self - and we-interests. By making this dimension explicit, metaeconomics reintegrates ethics and economics, includes values and community, and proposes the starting point for a common analytical engine for all socioeconomists.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Lois Joy American Economic Review. 2000. Vol. 90. No. 2. P. 471-475.
Do gender differences in college majors and qualifications account for gender differences in labor market outcomes? For the overwhelming majority of men and women, The Baccalauarate and Beyond Longitudinal Study data suggest that the answer is no. Within the majority of majors and occupations, men earn more than women in first jobs. The exception to this is for science and humanities majors, were men do not obtain a wage advantage over women. However, even within the sciences, women are more than twice as likely as men to end up in clerical first jobs, which are considered by students to be among the least satisfactory jobs.
Does culture matter in economic behavior? Ultimatum game bargaining among the Machiguenga of the Peruvian Amazon [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Joseph Henrich American Economic Review. 2000. Vol. 90. No. 4. P. 973-979.
This article addresses the assumptions that humans everywhere deploy the same cognitive machinery for making economic decisions and, consequently, will respond similarly when faced with comparable economic circumstances. These assumptions are addressed with experimental evidence from the Peruvian Amazon.
Опубликовано на портале: 31-01-2003Lawrence E. Raffalovich
This paper uses annual time-series data on a sample of thirty-nine countries to investigate the impact of inequality on growth over the 1950-1998 period. Our inequality measure is the property-income share of GDP, selected because it is both the means and the motive for investment, the proximate cause of growth in most theories. Cross-national time-series regression analysis of the pooled data finds only limited evidence that inequality increases subsequent growth, and only in a few countries. There is no evidence that this effect can be generalized beyond these few nations. The argument that inequality promotes economic growth remains largely unsupported.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Herbert Kiesling Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 6. P. 653-663.
Economics can be considered the science that deals with marketplace efficiency, or it can be viewed as a social science, which deals with human policy goals considered generally. The view Amartya Sen (1987) takes of the matter is that the broader view is the more correct. There is one large and important group of human goals that the mainstream professional economists systematically omit from their discipline: collective goals, especially other-regarding collective goals. How investigators can isolate lists of social goals that persons consider important is discussed. Using these it should not be difficult for social scientists to proceed to provide analysis, drawing upon all the relevant theoretical and imperical knowledge, and so making predictions for opportunity costs in terms of all the other goals of moving a unit closer to any goal (particularly a goal of central concern).
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Christos Kotsogiannis, Michael J. Keen American Economic Review. 2002. Vol. 92. No. 1. P. 363-370.
The relative strengths of vertical and horizontal tax externalities turn on the balance between the interest responsiveness of the supply of savings and demand for capital, the extent to which immobile factors are taxed by the states, and the strength of preferences between federal and state expenditures. The vertical externality will dominate if the aggregate tax base of the federation is responsible to the state tax instrument. Tax interactions in federations are more complex than has often been supposed.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jere R. Behrman, Mark R. Rosenzweig American Economic Review. 2002. Vol. 92. No. 1. P. 323-334.
The positive cross-sectional relationship between the schooling of mothers and their children is substantially biased upward due to correlations between schooling and heritable ability as well as assortative mating. An increase in the schooling of women would not have beneficial effects in terms of the schooling of children. Increased maternal schooling leads to reduced home time for mothers. Anticipating the consequences of investing in women's schooling requires attention to the role that schooling plays in the marriage market as well as to opportunities in the labor market for women.