Всего статей в данном разделе : 3403
Agency and social networks: Strategies of action in a social structure of position, opposition, and opportunity [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002William B. Stevenson, Danna Greenberg Administrative Science Quarterly. 2000. Vol. 45. No. 4. P. 651-678.
This study uses social movement concepts to explain the success and failure of actors in a network of relationships trying to influence policies on environmental issues in a small city. Results show that strategies to take action and mobilize others in a network of interorganizational relationships can vary depending on the social context, which consists of the political opportunity structure defined by government regulators, whether the actor faces opposition, and the actor's position in the network. Decisions to engage in strategies to try to influence government regulators directly, to use a broker to reach agreements with the opposition, or to form a coalition with actors in other organizations to influence government decision makers are affected by this social context. Results also show that even peripheral actors, usually assumed to be powerless in network studies, can influence policy if they use a direct-contact strategy and the political opportunity structure is favorable.
Опубликовано на портале: 05-11-2008Rafael La Porta, Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes, Andrei Shleifer, Robert W. Vishny Journal of Finance. 2000. Vol. 55. No. 1. P. 1-33 .
This paper outlines and tests two agency models of dividends. According to the "outcome model," dividends are paid because minority shareholders pressure corporate insiders to disgorge cash. According to the "substitute model," insiders interested in issuing equity in the future pay dividends to establish a reputation for decent treatment of minority shareholders. The first model predicts that stronger minority shareholder rights should be associated with higher dividend payouts; the second model predicts the opposite. Tests on a cross section of 4,000 companies from 33 countries with different levels of minority shareholder rights support the outcome agency model of dividends.
Age Stratification and Class Formation: A Longitudinal Study of the Social Mobility of Young Men and Women, 1971-1991 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 18-10-2004Muriel Egerton, Mike Savage Work, Employment, and Society. 2000. Vol. 14. No. 1. P. 23-49.
This paper examines the relationship between processes of demographic class formation, gender inequality and age stratification in England and Wales between 1971 and 1991. Existing research shows that the complex process of class restructuring which took place in these years is linked to considerable changes in the position of women, especially related to their growing numbers in professional and managerial occupations. We seek to show that changing processes of age stratification were also related to the remaking of class and gender relations in these years. Data from the Longitudinal Study (approximately 193,000 men and 203,000 women aged 2357 in two age cohorts; 1971 and 1981), Samples of Anonymised Records (approximately 121,500 men and 126,000 women aged 2357 in 1991), General Household Survey 19831992 (32,609 men and 16,191 women aged 2357 in fulltime employment) and from the National Child Development Study, 1981 and 1991 (2205 men and 887 women aged 23 and 33, in fulltime employment) were used to examine the movement of individuals through changing opportunity structures over the twenty-year period. We found a distinct hardening of the relationship between age and class in these two decades for men, with a marked increase in social polarisation between young men and older men, but for women this relationship was very different, with young women seeing considerable evidence of an improvement in their fortunes.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Norman Sedgley, Bruce Elmslie American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 1. P. 101-121.
Urban economists have long recognized that space is economically important. Evidence of the importance of urban agglomeration and the offsetting effects of congestion are provided in a number of studies of productivity and wages. Little attention has been paid to this evidence in the economic growth literature. The new growth research focuses on technological change. The production function is extended for new ideas common to this research in a way that allows for congestion and agglomeration in innovation and the hypothesis that these forces are important in explaining innovation is tested. Strong evidence is found that agglomeration and congestion are important in explaining the vast differences in per capita patent rates across US states. This suggests an important new agenda in linking studies of urban economics with the rapidly advancing of endogenous growth.
Опубликовано на портале: 21-10-2010Oane Visser, Karina Bidaseca Laboratorium. Журнал социальных исследований. 2010. № 2. С. 296-304.
The current neoliberal agrarian policies in Russia and Argentina (and the former Soviet Union and Latin America at large) have been strongly inﬂ uenced by the Western agribusiness model of the agrarian economy. Following periods of state-led agrarian development (a planned economy until 1991 in Russia and a state-led market economy in Argentina until 1990), the rural sector in these countries is now characterized by free prices and relatively free import and export policies.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2006Stephen Wood, Michael Clinton, Peter Totterdell International Small Business Journal. 2006. Vol. 24. No. 4. P. 179-203.
Portfolio working has been championed, most noticeably by Handy (1995), as a new way in which we should understand many working lives. It is said to be characterized by obtaining and doing a variety of pieces of work for a number of different clients or employers and is suggested by many to be an increasing practice. To understand how individuals who work in this way experience portfolio working, 26 semi-structured interviews were carried out with a range of portfolio workers and then analysed using a grounded theory technique. The model that was generated suggested that a particular combination of features characterized portfolio working: the self-management of work, the independent generation of work and income, the development of a variety of work and clients, and a working environment situated outside any single organization. The model further demonstrated how these combined features engendered three main psychological processes central to the experience of portfolio working: autonomy, uncertainty and social isolation. The nature of the processes had a subsequent impact upon the individual's work intensity, well-being and work–life balance. Personal and situational characteristics also emerged as playing a notable role in how portfolio working is experienced.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002David C. Ribar, Mark O. Wilhelm Journal of Political Economy. 2002. Vol. 110. No. 2. P. 425-457.
This study theoretically and empirically examines altruistic and joy-of-giving motivations underlying contributions to charitable activities. The theoretical analysis shows that in an economy with an infinitely large number of donors, impurely altruistic preferences lead to either asymptotically zero or complete crowd-out. The paper then establishes conditions on preferences that are sufficient to yield zero crowd-out in the limit. These conditions are fairly weak and quite plausible. An empirical representation of the model is estimated using a new 198692 panel of donations and government funding from the United States to 125 international relief and development organizations. Besides directly linking sources of public and private support, the econometric analysis controls for unobserved institution-specific factors, institution-specific changes in leadership, year-to-year changes in need, and expenditures by related organizations. The estimates show little evidence of crowd-out from either direct public or related private sources. Thus, at the margin, donations to these organizations appear to be motivated solely by joy-of-giving preferences. In addition to addressing the basic question of motives behind charitable giving, the results help explain the existing disparity between econometric and experimental crowd-out estimates.
Опубликовано на портале: 07-08-2003David Stark Экономическая социология. 2000. Т. 1. № 2. С. 7-34.
This paper questions the disciplinary division of labor whereby economists study value and sociologists study values; and it rejects the pact whereby economists study the economy and sociologists study the social relations in which economies are embedded. One of the core tasks of economic sociology is to develop a sociology of worth. I explore these themes by discussing the emergence of a new organizational form: heterarchy. Heterarchies are characterized by lateral accountability and the organization of diversity. In them we find an active rivalry of heterogeneous principles of evaluation as actors manuver in multiple networks by attempting to hold resources that are legitimated in more than one regime of worth. Examples of such organizational innovations are drawn from a longitudinal study of the intersecting ownership portfolios of firms in postsocialist Hungary and from my recent research on strategic alliances among new media firms in Manhattan’s Silicon Valley.
An analysis of kin-provided child care in the context of intrafamily exchanges: Linking components of family support for parents raising young children [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Peter D. Brandon American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2000. Vol. 59. No. 2. P. 191-216.
Previous models of the choice of kin-provided child care assumed that the presence of other forms of in-kind support from relatives nearby was inconsequential to estimating effects of economic and demographic factors on the decision to use kin-provided child care. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of the Class of 1972, it is shown that this assumption is incorrect because use of kin-provided child care and intrafamily in-kind resource exchanges are interrelated. When the association between use of kin-provided child care and the presence of other family in-kind exchanges is ignored, it is shown that estimated effects for income, the price of child care, and maternal characteristics are underestimated. The findings provide a better understanding of why parents choose kin-provided child care by confirming that this decision is a part of a larger set of parental decisions about involvement in resource exchanges within extended families.
An Asian Route To Capitalism: Religious Economy and the Origins of Self-Transforming Growth in Japan [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 24-05-2004Randall Collins American Sociological Review. 1997. Vol. 62. No. 6. P. 843-865.
Modern capitalism is a self-transforming dynamic that proliferates market niches, new products, and techniques. The industrial revolution could take place only in the context of preexisting agricultural capitalism; that, in turn, required a breakout from the obstacles constituted by agrarian-coercive societies. Organizational conditions necessary for self-sustaining capitalist growth included markets not only for commodities but for all factors of production (land, labor, and capital), combined under control of entrepreneurs motivated by an economic ethic of future-oriented calculation and investment. Weber was mistaken in holding that the capitalist breakthrough occurred only in Christian Europe. I propose a neo-Weberian model in which the initial breakout from agrarian-coercive obstacles took place within the enclave of religious organizations, with monasteries acting as the first entrepreneurs. The model is illustrated by the case of Buddhism in late medieval Japan. The leading sector of monastic capitalism spread into the surrounding economy through religious movements of mass proselytization which narrowed the gap between clergy and laity. Confiscation of Buddhist property at the transition to the Tokugawa period transferred the capitalist dynamic to the secular economy of an agricultural mass market, opening the way for a distinctive Japanese path through the industrial revolution.
And Then There Were More? The Effect of Organizational Sex Composition on the Hiring and Promotion of Managers [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Lisa E. Cohen, Joseph P. Broschak, Heather A. Haveman American Sociological Review. 1998. Vol. 63. No. 5. P. 711-727.
We study how organizational sex composition influences the intraorganizational mobility of male and female managers. We test hypotheses linking organizational sex composition to hiring and promotion using longitudinal data on all managers in the California savings and loan industry. We find that the impact of sex composition depends on hierarchical level: Not only does it matter what relative proportions of men and women are working in organizations, but it also matters at what levels in the managerial hierarchies they are working. Our findings demonstrate a catch-22 situation: Women are more likely to be hired and promoted into a particular job level when a higher proportion of women are already there. The question remains, how can women gain entry into these positions? We also find that women are more likely to be hired and promoted when there is a substantial minority of women above the focal job level, but not when women constitute the majority in those higher-level positions: Hence women in high ranks can sometimes be a force for demographic change. Finally, we find evidence that women are more likely to be hired and promoted when higher proportions of women hold positions below the focal job level, indicating that gains made by women are not entirely dissipated by endogenous organizational processes.
An Emerging Market for Corporate Control? The Mannesmann Takeover and German Corporate Governance [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 24-11-2008Martin Höpner, Gregory Jackson MPIfG, Discussion Paper. 2001. No. 01/4 .
Corporate governance in Germany is often described as a bank-oriented, block-holder or stakeholder model where markets for corporate control have not played a significant role. This case study of the hostile takeover of Mannesmann AG by Vodafone in 2000 demonstrates how systemic changes during the 1990s have eroded past institutional barriers to takeovers. These changes include the strategic reorientation of German banks from the "house bank" to investment banking, the growing consensus and productivity orientation of employee co-determination and corporate law reform. A significant segment of German corporations are now subjected to a market for corporate control. The implications for the German model are examined in light of both claims by agency theory for the efficiency of takeover markets, as well as the institutional complementarities within Germany's specific "variety" of capitalism. While the efficiency effects are questionable, the growing pressures for German corporations to achieve the higher stock market valuations of their Anglo-American competitors threaten the distributional compromises underlying the German model.
An empirical test of the institutionalist view on income inequality: Economic growth within the United States [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Carolyn B. Rodriguez American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2000. Vol. 59. No. 2. P. 303-313.
The relationship between income inequality and economic growth within the US is analyzed using state level data. Income inequality in the US since 1960 is described. A two-step causal model is employed to test the institutionalist contention that income inequality leads to socio-political instability, which has a negative impact on economic progress. The empirical results offer support for the institutionalist view.
An Epochal Change... but Uncertain Futures: The Japanese Capitalism in Crisis. A "Regulationist" Interpretation [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 25-03-2008Robert Boyer, Toshio Yamada CEPREMAP Working Papers. 2000. No. 2000-05.
This research summarizes the main findings of "Regulation" theory about the evolution of the Japanese economy since WWII and proposes an institutional interpretation of the crisis of the 90s. The company-ist compromise is the core of the whole institutional architecture via an original wage labour nexus, largely different from the American Fordist one. There is a clear hierarchy between the large corportation and sub-contractors. One observers a complementarity between the mode of governance of the firm and the main bank and finallybetween the industrial wselfare and the management of employment. A highly original "regulation" mode has allowed the implementation of a mass production and consumption economy, but this regime enters into crisis by its very success and this crisis is exacerbated by the impact of the financial bubble of the 90s. The paper surveys the transformation of the main institutional firms since the 90s and builds three scenarios based respectively upon: a large inertia of Japanese economic and political institutions; a quick adoption of typical market-led institutions under the pressure of financial market; or a new hybridization process that would concern banking and finance and not only the manufacturing industries, as was the case after WWII.
A new financial capitalism? Explaining the persistence of exit over voice in contemporary corporate governance [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 24-11-2008Gregory Jackson European Management Review. 2008. Vol. 5. No. 1. P. 23-26.
The article 'A New Finance Capitalism?' raises an important paradox. Institutional investors are growing in size and the concentration of their stakes gives them potential influence over managers. Yet we observe an unexpected absence of shareholder activism and voice on the part of institutional investors in contemporary America. Concentration occurs without commitment. This comment further explores some reasons why today's largest investors seem resigned to or even to benefit from their relative passivity and preference of exit over voice. These reasons include conflicts of interest, market failures, lack of organizational capabilities, use of informal voice, and dependence of markets for corporate control. Corporate governance scholars have surprisingly little evidence on these topics, which suggest an important agenda for future research.