Всего статей в данном разделе : 3404
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Bijou Yang, David Lester Journal of Socio-Economics. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 3. P. 281-290.
The role of culture in economic affairs was first recognized by Max Weber who attributed the rise of modern capitalism to the Protestant ethic. More recently, the contribution of cultural factors to economic success or failure in different countries or regions of the world has been documented. The present paper joins this effort by demonstrating the impact of culture on unemployment empirically. The national character traits of neuroticism and extraversion were added to a regression analysis of unemployment developed by Nickell (1998).
An Extension on the Traditional Theory of Customer Discrimination: Customers Versus Customers [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-09-2003Stephanie O. Crofton American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2003. Vol. 62. No. 2. P. 319-.
This study provides an extension on the traditional theory of customer discrimination. The traditional theory looks at customer discrimination via a case in which customers discriminate against a certain type of employee. This paper considers a case of customer discrimination in which customers discriminate against another group of customers. This paper argues that if women choose to attend an all-women college, they are engaging in this previously unexamined form of customer discrimination. Economic theory predicts that firms catering to customers who discriminate will charge higher prices. Thus, this study tests for the existence of customer discrimination by estimating a tuition equation at women's colleges and coeducational schools using ordinary least squares and a dummy-interaction technique. This study finds that, all else held constant, women's colleges do charge higher tuition rates.
Опубликовано на портале: 18-12-2009Nicole Woolsey Biggart, Gary G. Hamilton Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. 1987. Vol. 23. No. 4. P. 429-441 .
Most theories of leadership are rooted in a psychological paradigm that treats leadership as an individual attribute, although one that may be situationally activated or constrained In this article, the authors propose a theory of leadership inspired by the institutional school of organizational analysis. Using an approach based on Weberian sociology, the authors link leadership to the legitimating principles and norms of the social structure in which leadership occurs. Four hypotheses are presented; (1) leadership strategies in any one sociocultural setting will have strong underlying similarities, (2) as an organization changes over time, strategies of leadership will also change, (3) organizations performing the same tasks-but based on different substantive principles-will exhibit different strategies of leadership, and (4) occupational and organizational subgroups based on distinctive norms will exhibit similar leadership styles across organizations, and will differ from other subgroups within a single organization. 7he authors conclude by proposing a research agenda based on institutional theory.
An organizational approach to comparative corporate governance: Costs, contingencies, and complementarities [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 24-11-2008Ruth Aguilera, Gregory Jackson, Igor Filatotchev, Howard Gospel Organization Science. 2008. Vol. 19. No. 3. P. 475-492 .
This paper develops an organizational approach to corporate governance and assesses the effectiveness of corporate governance and implications for policy. Most corporate governance research focuses on a universal link between corporate governance practices (e. g., board structure, shareholder activism) and performance outcomes, but neglects how interdependencies between the organization and diverse environments lead to variations in the effectiveness of different governance practices. In contrast to such closed systems approaches, we propose a framework based on open systems approaches to organizations, which examines these organizational interdependencies in terms of the costs, contingencies, and complementarities of different corporate governance practices. These three sets of organizational factors are useful in analyzing the effectiveness of corporate governance in diverse organizational environments. We also explore the impact of costs, contingencies, and complementarities on the effectiveness of different governance aspects through the use of stylized cases and discuss the implications for different approaches to policy such as soft law or hard law.
Опубликовано на портале: 06-11-2008Andrei Shleifer, Daniel S. Treisman Journal of Economic Perspectives. 2005.
A note on the determinants of public dissatisfaction with government: Economic and political factors affecting the public's attitude toward government [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Richard J. Cebula, Chris Paul American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002. Vol. 61. No. 2. P. 495-501.
This study empirically identifies both the economic and political determinants of the public's dissatisfaction with government in the US. Using annual survey data on the public's dissatisfaction with government obtained for the years 1965-1996, it is found that the Vietnam War, Watergate, oil price shocks and higher federal marginal income tax rates resulted in elevated levels of the public's dissatisfaction with government, whereas increases in housing prices and a rising Dow Jones industrial average reduced the public's dissatisfaction with the government.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Yadong Luo Administrative Science Quarterly. 2001. Vol. 46. No. 2. P. 177-20.
This study examines how personal attachments between boundary spanners within cross-cultural international cooperative ventures (ICV) are established and their association with venture performance. Results of analysis of 282 ICVs in an emerging market, the People's Republic of China, show that the development depends on factors at three levels. At the individual level, attachment is an increasing function of overlap in tenure between boundary spanners. At the organizational level, attachment is heightened by goal congruity between the parent firms but is impeded by cultural distance. At the environmental level, market disturbance and regulatory deterrence lead to strong attachments. Such attachments may stimulate an ICV's process performance and increase financial returns.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002John Marangos American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002. Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 259-276.
The neoclassical model of transition from a centrally-administered socialist economic system to a market-based economic system was implemented in Russia and Eastern Europe. The neoclassical process took the form of either shock therapy or gradualism. However, each approach actually involved a combination of shock therapy and gradualist policies, making the distinction between the two approaches unfounded. In addition, both approaches suffered by the innate inadequacies of neoclassical economic analysis as being politically/institutionally naked. Both shock therapy supporters and gradualist neoclassical economists did not provide a specific process of institutional development, favoring a gradual market-driven institutional outcome. With regard to the political structure, democracy was inconsistent with shock therapy, while active state intervention during transition was inconsistent with the ultimate goal of the gradualist neoclassical economists of competitive capitalism.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Monder Ram, Tahir Abbas, Balihar Sanghera Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 2. P. 353-372.
Ethnic minority business activity has often been presented as a vehicle for upward mobility for owners and workers alike. Much attention has focused upon the owners themselves. The co-ethnic labour that such employers usually rely upon has often been treated as unproblematic. This paper aims to illuminate the experiences of workers in ethnic minority owned restaurants. In particular, the widely held view that working in a co-ethnic firm serves as an apprenticeship for eventual self-employment is explored. Rather than co-ethnic ties, workers' labour market experiences highlight the importance of the opportunity structure in shaping employment choices. The evidence of the current research suggests that the goal of self-employment was not widely held; and although many workers did move around to acquire better paid work, this was not part of a strategic route to becoming a restaurateur. Some workers did cherish such ambitions, but were inhibited by major obstacles. These included intense competition, high start-up costs, and a lack of know-how. The labour market and social context of the firm often militated against the hazardous proposition of self-employment.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Lauchlan T. Munro American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 4. P. 795-814.
This paper suggests that a principal-agent perspective may be one of several useful ways of analyzing the family. The principal-agent literature has so far ignored an important set of cases where the principal is incapable of defining and defending her own interests, and so is assigned an agent by law or custom. This paper applies principal-agent analysis to one such case, the family, where the child is taken as the principal and the parent is her agent. The principal-agent problem within families creates a prima facie case for certain state interventions to protect the interests of child-principals. The principal-agent perspective on the family sheds new light on two old debates: about provision of state welfare services in cash or in kind, and about user fees for social services.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Kristin J. Forbes American Economic Review. 2000. Vol. 90. No. 4. P. 869-887.
This paper challenges the current belief that income inequality has a negative relationship with economic growth. It uses an improved data set on income inequality which not only reduces measurement error, but also allows estimation via a panel technique. Results suggest that in the short and medium term, an increase in a country's level of income inequality has a significant positive relationship with subsequent economic growth.
Are German banks different? [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 12-11-2008Sigurt Vitols Small Business Economics. 1998. Vol. 10. No. 2. P. 79-91.
In recent years there has been a vigorous revival of the long-standing debate about the "uniqueness" of German banks. To date little consensus has been reached; while some see few differences between the role of banks in Germany and in other countries, others claim that universal banks' equity shareholdings in and nomination of representatives to the boards of nonfinancial firms are the key institutional features driving the rest of the "German model" of long-term investment in high-quality, internationally competitive manufacturing. This article argues that the uniqueness of the German banking system lies (1) in its unusually high capacity to provide industrial finance in the form of long-term debt capital, and (2) in its avoidance of the "speculative boom-credit crunch" cycle experienced by almost every other advanced industrialized country in the 1980s and early 1990s. These two key characteristics are attributable to a regulatory framework which involves strict prudential regulation, access to long-term refinancing sources, and a federalist form of corporatism. Furthermore, the behavior of German banks must be analyzed within a broader institutional system of economic governance which includes corporatist labor market institutions and a relatively large and modern SME sector.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Manuel Castells British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 3. P. 541-546.
Manuel Castells responds to an essay by Abell and Reyniers criticizing his work. Castells describes the essay as an angry refusal of the entire intellectual effort that he has submitted to collegial consideration, proceeding on the basis of selected paragraphs quoted out of context, and a series of unfounded statements. In Castells' view, Abell and Reyniers's is a marginal attitude in today's diverse and tolerant intellectual world.
A restructured social market [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2005Amitai Verner Etzioni Journal of Socio-Economics. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 3. P. 215-223.
Before listing the offering made on the altar of efficiency, one may wonder why this should matter to non-Americans, given that most other industrial societies maintain much higher levels of social caring, even if recently they have been lowered a bit. Indeed, it might be said that while the US is cutting into the bone, European welfare states are merely trimming the fat. The question, though, that all welfare states must face is where the fat stops and the bone begins. This is of great significance for sound public policies, democratic politics, and matters of principle. Even societies that have experienced fewer welfare cuts than the US are occasionally swinging across the line that separates streamlining the social market and dehumanizing it, if for no other reason than that the line has not been clearly drawn. Talking old people out of life-saving medical treatments to reduce costs is a glaring example. Furthermore, the absence of a vision of what a restructured social market is going to end up looking like what will be gutted as compared to firmly protected - grossly undercuts the legitimacy and the political support for these streamlining endeavors.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Milan Zafirovski, Barry B. Levine Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 3. P. 309-334.
The task is to explore social underpinnings in economic exchanges. This oration is undertaken within the frame of reference of socio-economics that centers on the multifarious social and cultural variables of economic phenomena. In particular, the socio-economic perspective on the market, focusing on the social setting of market exchanges, is utilized. As such, this exploration probes under the surface of (seemingly) cost-benefit induced exchange processes and uncovers a far more complex social structure and dynamics underlying these processes. Hence, these processes are analyzed as constituting socio-economic categories of the market. The social-cultural contingency of economic exchange, especially of its market varieties, is the key hypothesis. This signifies that market exchange, just as production, distribution, and consumption, is a dependent variable on concrete social-historical conditions, rather than being a human universal. The approach proposed here provides an alternative to the purely economic conception, which treats exchange processes as strictly economic variables driven by an intrinsic logic and insulated from other social relations. The mainstream economic literature's lack of consistent applications of such an approach to market exchange contrasts with the richness of such applications in the field of socio-economics. An attempt is made to contribute toward further elaboration and application of socio-economics.