Всего статей в данном разделе : 3403
Assessing the new synthesis of economics and sociology: Promising themes for contemporary analysts of economic life [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Dan Krier American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 669-696.
The emergence of the New Synthesis of economics and sociology is explored and analyzed in the context of the classical writings in economic sociology. The aim is not to provide an exhaustive survey, but rather a selective assessment that introduces the most important questions, answers, and contributions of this emerging and important specialized literature. An attempt is made to: 1. translate faithfully the internal logic of this active specialty field into a language and problematic that can be appreciated by non-specialists, 2. identify central assumptions and themes in the New Synthesis writings that seem particularly promising for the appreciation of contemporary economic happenings, and 3. indicate opportunities for the development of further theoretical richness by incorporating Old Synthesis approaches.
Опубликовано на портале: 02-11-2007Andrew B. Abel American Economic Review. 1990. Vol. 80. No. 2. P. 38-42.
This paper introduces a utility function that nests three classes of utility functions: (1) time-separable utility functions; (2) "catching up with the Joneses" utility functions that depend on the consumer's level of consumption relative to the lagged cross-sectional average level of consumption; and (3) utility functions that display habit formation. Closed-form solutions for equilibrium asset prices are derived under the assumption that consumption growth is i.i.d. The equity premia under catching up with the Joneses and under habit formation are, for some parameter values, as large as the historically observed equity premium in the United States
A theory of buyer-seller networks [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Rachel E. Kranton, Deborah F. Minehart American Economic Review. 2001. Vol. 91. No. 3. P. 485-508.
A new model of exchange is introduced: networks, rather than markets, of buyers and sellers. It begins with the empirically motivated premise that a buyer and seller must have a relationship to exchange goods. Networks - buyers, sellers, and the pattern of links connecting them - are common exchange environments. This paper develops a methodology to study network structures and explains why agents may form networks. In a model that captures characteristics of a variety of industries, the paper shows that buyers and sellers, acting strategically in their own self-interests, can form the network structures that maximize overall welfare.
Bad jobs in America: standard and nonstandard employment relations and job quality in the United States [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004Arne L. Kalleberg, Ken Hudson American Sociological Review. 2000. Vol. 65. No. 2. P. 256-278.
The prevalence of nonstandard jobs is a matter of concern if, as many assume, such jobs are bad. We examine the relationship between nonstandard employment (on-call work and day labor, temporary-help agency employment, employment with contract companies, independent contracting, other self-employment, and part-time employment in "conventional" jobs) and exposure to "bad" job characteristics, using data from the 1995 Current Population Survey. Of workers age 18 and over, 31 percent are in some type of nonstandard employment. To assess the link between type of employment and bad jobs, we conceptualize "bad jobs" as those with low pay and without access to health insurance and pension benefits. About one in seven jobs in the United States is bad on these three dimensions. Nonstandard employment strongly increases workers' exposure to bad job characteristics, net of controls for workers' personal characteristics, family status, occupation, and industry. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Maurice E. Schweitzer, Jeffrey L. Kerr Academy of Management Executive. 2000. Vol. 14. No. 2. P. 47-57.
Managers consume alcohol across a broad range of organizational contexts. In many cases, alcohol is consumed with little or no consideration of the risks or benefits involved. This paper identifies hazards of managerial drinking, as well as the role alcohol can play in developing relationships. It is argued that the decision to consume alcohol should be made rationally and strategically, and advice is offered for managers setting corporate policy or making individual decisions to consume alcohol.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Philip Hanson Economy and Society. 2002. Vol. 31. No. 1. P. 62 - 84.
Russia's economic adjustment to the fall of communism has been notoriously troubled. The output recovery since 1998 is widely judged to be fragile. What is less often noted is that Russia is far from unique in its 'transition' troubles. In this paper the main hypotheses put forward to account for Russia's transition difficulties are reviewed in the context of economic change in all ex-communist countries. Accounts relying on (unexplained) mistakes in economic policy are inadequate. Two accounts may be sustainable in the light of evidence from other ex-communist countries: one based on inherited economic structure and one based on cultural factors. The latter hypothesis is shown to be susceptible to testing.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Patrick Raines, Charles G. Leathers Journal of Socio-Economics. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 4. P. 375-388.
The behavioral influences of large bureaucratic organizations that were noted by Schumpeter would seem to weigh heavily against the plausibility of the Schumpeterian hypothesis that large corporations are more powerful engines of technological innovations than small competitive firms. But those influences also offer clues about how cultural differences between the US and Japan resulted in large Japanese corporations in the later post-WWII era conforming closely to the Schumpeterian hypothesis.
Being independent is a great thing: Subjective evaluations of self-employment and hierarchy [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 26-11-2008Matthias Benz, Bruno S. Frey Economica. 2008. Vol. 75. No. 298. P. 362-383.
One can be independent, or one can be subject to decisions made by others. This paper argues that this difference, embodied in the institutional distinction between the decision-making procedures 'market' and 'hierarchy', affects individual wellbeing beyond outcomes. Taking self-employment as an important case of independence, it is shown that the self-employed derive higher satisfaction from work than those employed in organizations, irrespective of income gained or hours worked. This is evidence for procedural utility: people value not only outcomes, but also the processes leading to outcomes.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Robert A. Baron, Gideon D. Markman Academy of Management Executive. 2000. Vol. 14. No. 1. P. 106-116.
Why are some entrepreneurs so much more successful than others in starting new ventures? Previous efforts to answer this question have generally focused either in the personality traits of susceptibility to various cognitive errors of individual entrepreneurs, or on such external factors as the number of competing businesses. It is suggested that entrepreneurs' social skills - specific competencies that help them interact effectively with others - may also play a role in their success.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jocelyn F. Pixley American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 1999. Vol. 58. No. 4. P. 1091-1116.
New developments in the sociology of money are outlined. Certain aspects of Post Keynesian monetarism are highlighted and Keynesian concepts of emotions relative to economics and economic sociology are explored. Underdeveloped areas of discourse in both sociology and economics are identified and the resulting superficiality of references to money are examined.
Bibliography on Social Class [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 26-02-2003Albert Benschop
Библиография по теме "Социальный класс", разработанная Альбертом Беншопом, включает список литературы из 2130 наименований на всех европейских языках по 2001 г. включительно. Ряд книг и статей библиографии имеют электронные аналоги.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-11-2005Eric A. Hanushek American Economic Review. 2001. Vol. 91. No. 2. P. 24-28.
The estimates in the study considered whether any of the governmental or family factors individually could explain the magnitude and pattern of black-white achievement gaps. Neither the level nor the distribution of school spending appears to provide much explanation for the gaps. School spending levels show little consistent impact with any indication of differential impact on blacks being small. Direct analyses of the effects of spending equalization on performance similarly show little impact. On the other hand, governmental intervention through integration programs appears potentially more important.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002James N. Baron, William T. Bielby American Sociological Review. 1980. Vol. 45. No. 5. P. 737-765.
This essay examines the shift toward "structural" explanations in recent studies of inequality. After reviewing this body of research and some of its shortcomings, we examine its theoretical underpinnings, comparing "structuralist" perspectives on work organization derived from institutional economics and neo-Marxism to more orthodox accounts based on neoclassical and "industrialism" theories. This discussion suggests areas where the different perspectives overlap and diverge. We conclude that work arrangements within the firm and their trend are the focus of most "structural" perspectives on positional stratification; thus, empirical studies grounded at the organizational level are more likely to inform current debates about the "structure of work" than is the growing body of research about structural effects on individual attainment or covariation among industrial/occupational characteristics. Toward that end, an agenda for future research is outlined, focusing on three aspects of work organization: (a) the units which comprise the structure of work and the dimensions underlying economic segmentation; (b) the effects of sectoral differentiation on technical and administrative arrangements within firms; and (c) temporal changes in how enterprises organize production. We provide some illustrations of the kinds of empirical data and research hypotheses required to link research on segmentation and stratification more closely to studies of organizations.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Veronika Tacke British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 2. P. 293-312.
The BSE problem as an example of the globalization of risk is examined. In order to determine whether the globalization of risk is a social construction depending on the context, the particular role of organizations is emphasized. An empirical comparison is made of the BSE-related risk-constructions of 5 business associations in the German meat industry sector. Results show that the associations construct the risk in close relation to their horizons of globalization, thereby reflecting provision problems, which the companies they are representing face. While the main organizational domains in the sector tried to cope with the risk problem by different means of local market closure, one association, founded in reaction to the BSE problem, took over a reflexive role with regard to the emerging risk communication on BSE in Germany.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Mildred Warner Journal of Socio-Economics. 2001. Vol. 30. No. 2. P. 187-192.
This paper explores the constructability of social capital and specifically the role formal state supported institutions can play in structuring community level interventions to build social capital.