Всего статей в данном разделе : 3403
Bureaucracy and Growth: A Cross-National Analysis of the Effects of "Weberian" State Structures on Economic Growth [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Peter Evans, James E. Rauch American Sociological Review. 1999. Vol. 64. No. 5. P. 748-765.
The role of bureaucratic authority structures in facilitating economic growth has been a sociological concern since Max Weber's classic contributions almost 100 years ago. Using a recent and original data set, we examine the characteristics of core state economic agencies and the growth records of a sample of 35 developing countries for the 1970-1990 period. Our "Weberianness Scale" offers a simple measure of the degree to which these agencies employ meritocratic recruitment and offer predictable, rewarding long-term careers. We find that these "Weberian" characteristics significantly enhance prospects for economic growth, even when we control for initial levels of GDP per capita and human capital. Our results imply that "Weberianness" should be included as a factor in general models of economic growth. They also suggest the need for more attention by policymakers to building better bureaucracies and more research by social scientists on variations in how state bureaucracies are organized.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Vivek Chibber American Journal of Sociology. 2002. Vol. 107. No. 4. P. 951-989.
There has been a resuscitation of the view that the state can play an important role in the industrialization process. But, for states to be successful in fostering development, they need a considerable degree of internal cohesiveness, which is generally supplied by the presence of a robust, Weberian bureaucratic corps. This article argues that, while internal cohesiveness is indeed critical, bureaucratic rule following can produce results in the opposite direction, depending on the interagency relations that obtain within the state. The effect of interagency relations is demonstrated through an examination of India and Korea. Both have worked to foster industrialization, and both are endowed with relatively healthy bureaucracies. However, the Indian state was paralyzed and fragmented, while its Korean counterpart did secure the requisite internal coherence. Not only did the culture of rule following fail to generate a cohesive state in India, but it, in fact, worked against such an outcome.
Business Citizenship at Work: Cultural Transposition and Class Formation in Cincinnati, 1870 - 1910 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jeffrey Haydu American Journal of Sociology. 2002. Vol. 107. No. 6. P. 1424-1467.
This article links class analysis and institutionalism through a case study of late-19th-century employers. Class analysis extends institutionalism by highlighting an additional source of cultural transposition a generalized identity summarized here as "business citizenship." Institutionalism, in turn, shows how civic associations worked to unify employers and foster an overarching class consciousness. The case study provides an overview of class formation among Cincinnati employers and illustrates how business citizenship carried over from the realms of political reform and high culture to personnel management and industrial training. Some comparative observations suggest this pattern of class formation and cultural transposition was typical.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Yutaka Imai, Masaaki Kawagoe Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 16. No. 2. P. 114-123.
It is argued that the comparatively low levels of business start-ups in Japan need not be a matter of concern insofar as the pattern of growth relying on existing companies persists. But the declining trend of start-up rates may be worrisome for it may indicate waning entrepreneurship and weakening mechanisms of resource reallocation and economic growth. Policy measures to promote business start-ups are not based on well founded studies at an aggregate level, which are lacking in the absence of comparable data, but rather are inspired by the successful U.S. experience. This paper looks into two specific areas of policy-private equity markets and bankruptcy-where important progress has been made, and points to further scope for improvement.
Опубликовано на портале: 02-11-2007John Y. Campbell, John H. Cochrane Journal of Political Economy. 1999. Vol. 107. No. 2. P. 205-251.
We present a consumption-based model that explains the procyclical variation of stock prices, the long-horizon predictability of excess stock returns, and the countercyclical variation of stock market volatility. Our model has an i.i.d. consumption growth driving process, and adds a slow-moving external habit to the standard power utility function. The latter feature produces cyclical variation in risk aversion, and hence in the prices of risky assets Our model also predicts many of the difficulties that beset the standard power utility model, including Euler equation rejections, no correlation between mean consumption growth and interest rates, very high estimates of risk aversion, and pricing errors that are larger than those of the static CAPM. Our model captures much of the history of stock prices, given only consumption data. Since our model captures the equity premium, it implies that fluctuations have important welfare costs. Unlike many habit-persistence models, our model does not necessarily produce cyclical variation in the risk free interest rate, nor does it produce an extremely skewed distribution or negative realizations of the marginal rate of substitution
Cambridge Scale Scores for CASOC Groupings; Cambridge Scale Scores for Official Classifications 1961-1991 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 26-05-2003Ken Prandy Working Papers (Cambridge Studies in Social Research). 2002.
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Can High-technology Industries Prosper in Germany? Institutional Frameworks and the Evolution of the German Software and Biotechnology Industries [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 12-11-2008Steven Casper, Mark Lehrer, David Soskice Industry and Innovation. 2008. Vol. 6. No. 1. P. 5 - 24.
The paper explores the influence of institutional frameworks on the evolution of the German software and biotechnology sectors. It links institutional constraints to poor performance of German firms in high volume market niches characterized by turbulent technological change and substantial financial risk. However, German firms are prospering in software services and “platform technologies” in biotechnology. The company organizational structures and investment strategies needed to excel in these market segments provide a close “fit” with incentives created within the German economy.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-01-2007Bob Jessop Review of International Political Economy. 1997. Vol. 4. No. 3. P. 561-581.
The article relates capitalism's distinctive dynamic to the nature of the wage relation and self-valorization of capital. Capitalism has no final telos: its future remains open in the face of structural changes and social struggles. This source of capitalist dynamism also opens it to external influence. Some key changes in the 'government and governance' of economics and politics are also discussed. These include: the denationalization of statehood, a partial de-statization of politics, and the internationalization of policy regimes. Among counter-trends are the survival of the national state as an instance of meta-governance.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-01-2007Geoffrey M. Hodgson Journal of Economic Issues. 2003. Vol. 37. No. 2. P. 471-478.
Under capitalism there is a potential for increasing socioeconomic complexity and greater specialization of skills.1 One implication is that there is a potential for increasing inequalities of wealth, income, and power on both a national and international scale. What follows is an updated, broad-brush account of possible future developments in a knowledge-intensive capitalist economy. They can themselves be manifest in different ways, in a number of quite different institutional frameworks.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Geoffrey Ingham British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 1. P. 76-96.
A conception of money as a neutral veil masking a real economy was adopted by economic theory after the Methodenstreit, and is also to be found, in a different form, in Marxian political economy. Both derive from an erroneous functionalist and anachronistic commodity theory of money which, as Post-Keynesian economists argue, cannot explain the distinctive form of capitalist credit-money. Orthodox economic theory and classic Marxism have tacitly informed and flawed historical sociology's understanding of money's role in capitalist development. Mann (1986) and Runciman (1989), for example, consider the economy exclusively in terms of the social relations of production and imply that money is epiphenomenal and is to be explained as a response to the needs of the real economy. They do not recognize the structural specificity of capitalist money and banking nor its importance. An alternative account of the autonomous historical conditions of existence of the specifically capitalist form of bank and state credit-money and its role in capitalist development is outlined.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-01-2007Ernesto Screpanti Review of International Political Economy. 1999. Vol. 6. No. 1. P. 1-26.
This article proposes a classification of capitalist forms on the basis of two concepts, 'property rights regimes' (PRRs) and 'accumulation governance structures' (AGSs). The former defines the way in which the ownership of wealth and surplus value is distributed, the latter the institutional systems governing the uses of surplus value to sustain accumulation. Three PRRs-'concentrated private property', 'diffused private property' and 'state property'-and four AGSs-'goods markets', 'companies markets', 'external hierarchies' and 'internal hierarchies'-are defined. Various historical forms of capitalism are described as resulting from particular combinations of PRRs and AGSs. Then a few ideal types are outlined: 'classical capitalism', 'market-oriented corporate capitalism' and 'bank-oriented corporate capitalism'. Finally a hypothesis is advanced as to how capitalism evolves, namely that historical transformations of PRRs and AGSs tend to pave the way for the emergence of 'autonomous capital': accumulation is controlled through complex systems of external hierarchies among firms; the large concerns which are in command of these hierarchical structures are collectively self-owned and formally controlled by their managers through strategic cross-shareholding; no external shareholder exerts effective control.
Challengers, elites, and owning families: A social class theory of corporate acquisitions in the 1960s [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Donald Palmer Administrative Science Quarterly. 2001. Vol. 46. No. 1. P. 87-120.
This paper analyzes data on 461 large US industrial corporations to determine that factors that led large firms to participate in the wave of diversifying acquisitions that peaked in the late 1960s. A class theory of corporate acquisitions is elaborated on and tested, maintaining that firms pursue acquisitions in this periods when they were commended by well-networked challenges who were central in elite social networks but relatively marginal with respect to social status, isolated from the resistance of established elites, and free from control of owning families. Also considered is a wide range of factors highlighted by alternative accounts of acquisition likelihood, including resource dependent, institutional pressures, and principle-agent conflicts. The results provide support for the moan theoretical arguments, even when controls related to alternative explanations are taken into account.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-11-2007Sigurt Vitols Corporate Governance: An International Review. 2005. Vol. 13. No. 3. P. 386 - 396.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Brian Goesling American Sociological Review. 2001. Vol. 66. No. 5. P. 745-761.
Fresh data sources on cross-national income are examined to document recent changes in the composition of world income inequality within and between nations. New evidence shows that during the 1980s and 1990s the composition of world income inequality experienced a fundamental change, characterized by the diminishing significance of between-nation income differences and the growing prominence of within-nation inequalities. Two competing trends account for this change: (1) steady growth in the average level of income inequality within nations, and (2) a decline in income inequality between nations. These recent trends signify a reversal in one of the major legacies of the Industrial Revolution-the internationalization of world income inequality across national borders. The findings raise important questions for future studies of cross-national inequality and development.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2003Simon Commander, Andrei Tolstopiatenko, Ruslan Yemtsov William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series. 1997. No. 42.
Among the many popular images of the Russian transition, none cast a more dramatic shadow than the apparently rapid transformation of an entire system from one characterised by low inequality and largely absent poverty to one marked by extremes of deprivation and prosperity. Once hailed as a salutary contrast to the extremes of well-being so characteristic of many economies at comparable levels of income, Russia now exhibits the tell-tale inequities that mark, for example, many Latin American economies. How accurate is this representation, both in its depiction of the situation pre-transition, let alone the consequences of recent changes? This paper is an attempt to answer these questions in as precise a manner as possible. The paper is organised as follows. Section 1 gives a brief description of the datasets — primarily the six rounds of a large household survey, the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) - that we use in this paper. Section 2 sets out the initial conditions that obtained in the Former Soviet Union and Russia and the picture that emerges from use of official statistics. These are shown to be seriously misleading in a number of key respects. Section 3 deals with the channels of redistribution that are likely to be present in the transition and surveys the evidence available from both aggregate data and firm-level information. In Section 4 the key channels are formalised in a two sector model of transition in which the reallocation of labour and capital across state and private sectors is seen as the determining feature of transition. The model is primarily concerned with labour allocation and hence can provide the paths of inequality and poverty over the transition primarily associated with labour income. Some simulations are presented which provide a set of simple benchmarks for understanding the size of likely effects from both within-sector inequality as also through restructuring and closure probabilities for state firms and the relative productivity of both state and private sectors. Section 5 turns to the empirical findings that emerge from a detailed look at the household surveys, including the factors driving the changes in inequality. Section 6 looks at how stable the transitions over the income distribution have been and, in particular, takes a closer look at groups of stable winners and losers. Section 7 turns to the measurement of poverty and the results that emerge from the household survey regarding both expenditure and income measured poverty. We also look at the characteristics of the poor. Section 8 concludes.