Всего статей в данном разделе : 3403
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Gerald E. Auten, Holger Sieg, Charles Clotfelter American Economic Review. 2002. Vol. 92. No. 1. P. 371-382.
This study implies that taxes affect the level of contributions by way of a price effect and an income effect, each of which has two components, a transitory one and a persistent one. The findings suggest that persistent shocks in incomes have a larger impact on charitable donations than do their transitory counterparts. The most important behavioral aspect for considerations of tax policy is the persistent price effect, since transitory effects are passing. Through this effect tax reforms can have a long-lasting influence on charitable giving.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002David Lockwood British Journal of Sociology. 1996. Vol. 47. No. 3. P. 531-550.
The aim is to explore the usefulness of inverting the class analysis problematic, which starts from class structure and then asks under what conditions sociopolitical class formation occurs, and then how this in turn bears upon social cohesion. By contrast, the route followed here starts from the assumption that the institutional unity of citizenship, market and bureaucratic relations is central to social cohesion, and then concentrates on the questions of how inequalities of class and status affect the institutionalization of citizenship and thereby its integrative function. While its practice is heavily influenced by the structure of social inequality, citizenship cart be seen to exert a force-field of its own. Four main types of 'civic stratification' are distinguished by reference to citizens' differing enjoyment of, and abilities to exercise, rights, their social categorization by the rights themselves and by their motivation to extend and enlarge them: namely, civic exclusion, civic gain and deficit, and civic expansion. Their consequences for social integration are then briefly discussed. One advantage of this approach is that it allows inequalities related to age, gender and ethnicity to be incorporated within the same explanatory scheme.
Class analysis and the reorientation of class theory: a case of persisting differentials in educational attainment [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002John H. Goldthorpe British Journal of Sociology. 1996. Vol. 47. No. 3. P. 481-406.
In class analysis the main regularities that have been established by empirical research are not ones of long-term class formation or decomposition, as envisaged in Marxist or liberal theory, but rather ones that exhibit the powerful resistance to change of clam relations and associated life-chances and patterns of social action. If these regularities are to be explained, theory needs to he correspondingly reoriented, and must abandon nationalist and teleological assumptions in favour of providing more secure micro-foundations. This argument is developed and illustrated in the course of an attempt to apply rational action theory to the explanation of persisting class differentials in educational attainment.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Adam Swift British Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 51. No. 4. P. 663-679.
Abstract: Distinguishing between an explanatory and a normative interest in social stratification, this paper considers the relation between class analysis and the value of equality. Starting from the familiar distinction between (in)equality of position and (in)equality of opportunity, and noting the extent to which mobility research focuses on the latter, it suggests that class positions can themselves be characterized in terms of the opportunities they yield to those occupymg them. This enables the clear identification of the kinds of inequality that are and are not addressed by research findings presented in terms of class categories, and odds ratios. The significance of those findings from a normative perspective is then discussed, and their limitations are emphasized - though the paper also explains in what ways they are indeed of normative relevance.
Опубликовано на портале: 05-03-2003Edna Bonacich Insurgent Sociologist. 1980. X:2. P. 9-24.
Предлагается дополнить традиционный подход к изучению расовой стратификации на основе аскриптивных (примордиальных) характеристик человека, рассмотрением данного неравенства с точки зрения его обусловленности классовыми отношениями. Это позволит, по мнению автора, не только глубже понять исследуемую реальность, но и разработать инструментарий к ее изменению. Описываются преимущества классового анализа при изучении этносоциальной и расовой стратификации, предлагаются возможные направления синтеза теорий расового и этнического неравенства и классового подхода.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Erik Olin Wright American Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 105. No. 6. P. 1559-1571.
In commenting on Aage Sorensen's "Toward a Sounder Basis for Class Analysis," Wright argues against the ideas that exploitation can be fruitfully defined in terms of rent-generating processes or that a class analysis built on such foundations will be satisfactory.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Richard Breen, John H. Goldthorpe British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 1. P. 1-27.
Saunders' (1996, 1997) recent work claiming that contemporary British society is to a large extent 'meritocratic' is criticized on conceptual and technical grounds. A reanalysis of the National Child Development Study data-set, used by Saunders, is presented. This reveals that while merit, defined in terms of ability and effort, does play a part in determining individuals' class destinations, the effect of class origins remains strong. Children of less advantaged origins need to show substantially more merit than children from more advantaged origins in order to gain similar class positions. These differences in findings to some extent arise from the correction of biases introduced by Saunders; but there are also features of his own results, consistent with those reported in the reanalysis, which he appears to not fully have appreciated.
Class structure in a deeply divided society: Class and ethnic inequality in Israel, 1974-1991 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Meir Yaish British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 3. P. 409-439.
Despite the fact that in many societies ethnicity plays an important role in stratification processes, a common view held by students of stratification argues that the role of ascriptive criteria in stratification processes is diminishing, and that the main axis of the modern stratification system is rooted in the division of labor in the marketplace. Despite this, most Israeli sociologists have taken the ethnic and national cleavages to be the main axes of stratification in Israel. This paper utilizes the 1974 and 1991 mobility surveys in Israel to examine changes over time in the association between ethnicity/nationality and class position in the Israeli stratification structure. It also examines the extent to which inequality of opportunity within the Israel class structure is affected by ethnicity/nationality. Here it is found that the ethnic/national cleavage in Israel appears to have played a less important role over time in the allocation of Israeli men to class positions.
Coherence, Diversity, and the Evolution of Capitalisms—The Institutional Complementarity Hypothesis [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 25-03-2008Robert Boyer Evolutionary and Institutional Economics Review. 2005. Vol. 2. No. 1. P. 43-80.
What are the forces that make relatively and transitorily coherent the institutional configurations of capitalism? In response to the literature on the variety of capitalisms, this article investigates the relative explanatory power of various hypotheses: institutional complementarity, institutional hierarchy, coevolution, simple compatibility or isomorphism. Compatibility is too often confused with complementarity and it is frequently an ex-post recognition, rarely an ex ante design. Both hybridization and endometabolism are the driving forces in the transformation of institutional configurations. Uncertainty and the existence of some slack in the coupling of various institutions are key features that call for the mixing of various methodologies in order to detect complementarities. This framework is then used in order to show that three distinct institutional complementarities are at the origin of the more successful national economies since the 90s. Thus, institutional diversity is being recreated and the existence of complementarities plays a role in this process.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Gautam Ahuja Administrative Science Quarterly. 2000. Vol. 45. No. 3. P. 425-455.
To assess the effects of a firm's network of relations on innovation, this paper elaborates a theoretical framework that relates 3 aspects of a firm's ego network - direct ties, indirect ties, and structural holes - to the firm's subsequent innovation output. Results from a longitudinal study of firms in the international chemicals industry indicate support for the predictions on direct and indirect ties, but in the inter-firm collaboration network, increasing structural holes has a negative effect on innovation.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Carole Turbin Enterprise and Society. 2000. Vol. 1. No. 3. P. 507-535.
Detachable collars, essential to men's appearance from the 1840s to the 1920s, have left a lasting legacy: the term 'white collar' and the "Arrow Man," the centerpiece of Arrow collar advertisements from 1907 until 1931. The Arrow Man was the visual representation of the "New Man," and Arrow collars were preserved in American culture through the lyrics of a 1934 Cole Porter song, "You're the Top." Both the Arrow collar and the Arrow Man derived from business decisions that reflected emerging and changing American consumer tastes and markets, an expanding middle class, and shifts in culture, especially in new ideal images of manliness that were less class-based, contributing to Americans' impression that social distinctions were more blurred than in the past. The Arrow Man embodied in a single compelling image the resolution of social contradictions that persisted beneath the increased similarity of men of different backgrounds.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Nicole Woolsey Biggart, Richard P. Castanias American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2001. Vol. 60. No. 2. P. 471-500.
Traditionally, economists have viewed social relations as friction or impediments to exchange and have excluded social relations from their analyses by assuming autonomous actors. Recently, however, a number of scholars - economists, sociologists, anthropologists, and other social scientists - have begun to discuss the numerous ways in which social arrangements both prompt and channel economic activity. Rational choice theory, social capital and network analysis, and agency and game theory, are among those approaches that consider the effects of social relations on economic action. In this paper, that discussion is extended by arguing that social relations can function as collateral or assurance that an economic transaction will proceed as agreed by the parties involved. Recent microeconomic theories are reviewed and how They might be developed following this observation, which is derived from sociological and anthropological studies of economic action and organizations.
Comparing capitalisms: understanding institutional diversity and its implications for international business [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 24-11-2008Gregory Jackson, Richard Deeg Journal Of International Business Studies. 2008. Vol. 39. No. 4. P. 540-561.
This paper examines the role of institutional analysis within the field of international business (IB) studies. Within IB, institutions matter, but the view of institutions tends to be "thin", utilizing summary indicators rather than detailed description, and thus approaches institutions as unidimensional ''variables" that impact on particular facets of business activity. This paper argues that IB research would be usefully advanced by greater attention to comparing the topography of institutional landscapes and understanding their diversity. A number of alternative case-based approaches are outlined that draw on a growing "comparative capitalisms" literature in sociology and political science. The paper develops a number of empirical examples to show the utility and limits of these approaches for IB scholars.
Comparing Social Stratification Schemas: CAMSIS, CSP-CH, Goldthorpe, ISCO-88, Treiman, and Wright [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 25-01-2003Manfred Max Bergman, Dominique Joye
The purpose of this article is to inform researchers in the social and political sciences about the main social stratification scales in use today. Six stratification schemas are described in this text: the Cambridge Social Interaction and Stratification Scale (CAMSIS), Swiss Socio-Professional Categories (CSP-CH), John H. Goldthorpes class schema, the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-88), Donald J. Treimans prestige scale, and Erik Olin Wrights class structure. Their theoretical backgrounds and assumptions are discussed, as are their structural and methodological aspects. General problems of contemporary stratification research are covered, and suggestions for future research directions within this field are proposed.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Neil Gandal Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 18. No. 1. P. 80-91.
Given the dramatic growth of the Internet and information technology industries in general, and the importance of interconnection in these networks, the economics of compatibility and standardization has become mainstream economics. Several key policy aspects of standard-setting in industries with network effects are examined.