Всего статей в данном разделе : 3403
Опубликовано на портале: 22-12-2009Gary G. Hamilton
Examines the former attempts to capture the China market, beginning with opium trade in the middle of the nineteenth century and points out that in each head-to-head competition, Western merchants lost to their Chinese counterparts. Possibility that Chinese consumer market will be among the largest in the world in the late 1990s. Examination of some organizational reasons that give Chinese businesspeople some comparative advantages in economic competition.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Xavier Vives Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 17. No. 4. P. 535-547.
This paper reviews the role of competition in banking against the background of a transforming sector. It uses industrial organization and modern financial intermediation analysis to study the relationships between the level of competition, risk-taking incentives, and the regulatory frame. The consequences for market structure of the liberalization process and the need for competition policy in the sector are highlighted.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Heidi Gottfried British Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 51. No. 2. P. 235-259.
This paper adopts a regulation framework to chart the emergence of neo-Fordism as a flexible accumulation regime and mode of social regulation. Neo-Fordism relies on old Fordist principles as well as incorporating new models of emergent post-Fordisms; old and new social relationships, in their particular combination, specify the trajectory of national variants. It is argued that Fordist bargains institutionalized the terms of a compromise between labor, capital and the state. These bargains embedded a male-breadwinner gender contract compromising women's positions and standardardizing employment contracts around the needs, interests and authority of men. A focus on compromises and contracts makes visible the differentiated gender effects of work transformation in each country.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Neil Fligstein, Alec S. Sweet American Journal of Sociology. 2002. Vol. 107. No. 5. P. 1206-1243.
As institutions and governance structures develop in modern markets, they tend to "feed back" onto economic activity. Through such feedback loops, market and political arenas can develop symbiotically into relatively coherent "fields" that gradually embed actors' orientations and activities. Using these insights, this article develops and tests a theory of European integration focusing on the case of the European Community, the first pillar of the European Union. Traders, organized interests, courts, and the EC's policy-making organs, over time, have produced a self-sustaining causal system that has driven the construction of the European market and polity. The generality of this explanation to a sociology of markets and polity-building projects is discussed in the conclusion.
Опубликовано на портале: 25-11-2008Gregory Jackson RIETI Discussion Paper. 2004. No. 04-E-022 .
This article examines the role of ambiguity in processes of institutional change. One challenge for understanding institutional change is to overcome the rather "oversocialized" view of action within Institutional theory. Drawing upon recent work in sociology, the paper introduces a non-teleological model of action that stresses the ambiguity of institutionalized beliefs. Ambiguity is then applied to Masahiko Aoki's concept of institutions as "summary representation" of a strategic game. Rather than institutional break down, ambiguity is associated with incremental modes of institutional change through creative reinterpretation and redeployment of old institutions for new purposes. Empirically, the paper applies these considerations to understanding the historical evolution of employee codetermination in Germany. The continuity in formal legal rules of codetermination contrasts with remarkable diversity as an organizational practice-over time, across industrial sectors and between individual firms. Codetermination illustrates how ambiguity originated in political compromise, but also how ambiguous agreement allows scope for institutional innovation. Ambiguity is, thus, central for understanding how codetermination was partially reproduced and partially changed over time.
Опубликовано на портале: 24-11-2008Gregory Jackson, A. Moerke Corporate Governance: An International Review. 2008. Vol. 13. No. 3. P. 2005.
Germany and Japan are often seen deviating from an economic model of shareholder control and thereby as being similar by virtue of their mutual contrast with the US. Given the common challenges for bank-based and stakeholder-oriented models of corporate governance, Germany–Japan comparison seems particularly timely. This article provides an introductory overview and analysis for the Special Issue by comparing recent developments in corporate law reform, banking and finance, and employment in Germany and Japan. While rejecting arguments for international convergence, we discuss this evidence of simultaneous continuity and change in corporate governance as a potential form of hybridisation of national models or renegotiation of stakeholder coalitions in German and Japanese firms. One consequence is the growing diversity of firm-level corporate governance practices within national systems.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-11-2007Sigurt Vitols Competition and Change. 2004. Vol. 8. No. 4. P. 331-338.
The concept of a German model of economic organization and production.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Nancy J. Miller Journal of Socio-Economics. 2001. Vol. 30. No. 6. P. 475-493.
The social environment in which the retailer conducts business is not often measured for its fundamental influences on consumers' local purchasing behavior. This study, using social capital theory as a theoretical framework, examines whether reciprocal actions exist between community members as consumers and retailers and if these actions are persuasive in predicting the economic activity regarded as consumer inshopping. Determinants of inshopping behavior are analyzed from the community member's perspective in a study of the rural community marketplace. The sample population consisted of consumers living in two rural Iowa communities with populations less than 10,000, agricultural-based economies, and retail mixtures of locally owned and operated small-sized businesses as well as national chain and discount organizations. Structural equation modeling estimated the causal patterns among consumers' attachment to community with two endogenous variables regarding reciprocity and inshopping behavior. Findings offer supporting evidence that social relationships aid in predicting rural marketplace relationships.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Ernst Fehr, Simon Gachter American Economic Review. 2000. Vol. 90. No. 4. P. 980-994.
This paper shows experimentally that there is a widespread willingness of cooperators to punish free-riders. Results indicate that this holds true even if punishment is costly and does not provide any material benefits for the punisher. In addition, evidence is provided that free-riders are punished the more heavily the more they deviate from the cooperation levels of the cooperators.
Co-operation in inter-firm relations in Britain and Germany: the role of social institutions [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002British Journal of Sociology. 1997. Vol. 48. No. 2. P. 226-254.
The first part of the paper will theoretically examine the social function of trust, the preconditions of the production of trust and the possibility of reconstructing power as a mechanism functionally similar to trust. The second part of the paper is based on empirical research and will elaborate from a comparative perspective (Britain and Germany) how industry associations and legal regulations influence the quality of inter-firm relations. Our central argument is that trust is more reliably produced when these institutions are strong and consistent and business relations are deeply embedded into their institutional environment. We will argue that power is more likely to function as an alternative mode of co-ordinating social expectations and interaction when the institutional Framework and the embeddedness of social interaction is weak, But power produced by a comprehensive and stable institutional environment - what we call system trust - appears to be fostering the production of trust rather than being detrimental to it.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Paul Windolf, Jurgen Beyer British Journal of Sociology. 1996. Vol. 47. No. 2. P. 205-231.
This study examines the capital network (ownership) and the network of interlocking directorates among the 623 largest business firms in Germany and the 520 largest in Britain. Three major differences are identified in the structure of these networks in the two countries: (1) In Germany ownership is highly concentrated, i.e., shareholdings - generally by the non-financial sector - tend to be sufficiently large to allow the owners to dominate the firm. In Britain ownership is much less concentrated, with almost half of all shareholdings - generally in the financial sector - amounting to less than 5 per cent of company stock. (2) In Germany - in contrast to Britain - the network of interlocking directorates is closely related to the capital network, i.e., it serves to enhance the power of the owners. (3) In Germany - in contrast to Britain - both networks are concentrated within the same industry, i.e., potential competitors are associated with one another. Germany thus illustrates 'co-operative capitalism' whereas Britain exemplifies 'competitive capitalism'.
Опубликовано на портале: 20-11-2008Martin Höpner MPIfG, Discussion Paper. 2007. No. 7/12.
This paper suggests a two-dimensional concept of nonliberal capitalism: coordinated capitalism (as described in the varieties of capitalism framework) and organized capitalism. While the coordination function of institutions canalizes individual maximization strategies of firms in order to adjust for collective action problems, the organization function transcends maximization strategies and adjusts them to collective interests beyond maximization. Political economies are highly organized when firms are not only the private business of owners and insiders but, in addition, quasi-public infrastructures and, therefore, highly constrained in their economic decisions by institutionally sanctioned collective interests (such as sectoral interests, class interests, or political interests). I construct an index on organized capitalism by combining data on ownership structures, board level codetermination, the density of employers’ associations and trade union density in order to allow for comparison between varying extents of coordination and organization in 20 OECD countries. The German example is used to demonstrate the analytical usefulness of the coordination–organization distinction in qualitative terms. The distinction allows for differentiation between two forms of liberalization: declining coordination and disorganization.
Core networks and tie activation: what kinds of routine networks allocate resources in nonroutine situations? [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004Jeanne S. Hurlbert, Valerie A. Haines, John J. Beggs American Sociological Review. 2000. Vol. 65. No. 4. P. 598-618.
Social resources research has linked activated ties to outcomes-but not to the core networks from which the ties came. This study shifts the focus to the question of how networks allocate resources. The activation of core network ties is analyzed in a nonroutine situation-a hurricane-to determine how core network structure affects the degree to which individuals activate core network ties to gain one type of social resource-informal support. Results show that the structures of individuals' core networks affect the degree to which individuals activate ties from those networks to gain informal support. Individuals embedded in higher-density core networks (i.e., alters are connected to one another), core networks with more gender diversity (i.e., a mix of men and women), and networks that contain higher proportions of men, kin, and younger individuals, activated core network ties for informal support to a greater degree than did individuals embedded in core networks lacking these characteristics. The conclusions consider the study's implications for understanding resource activation in the contexts of social support and job searches.
Corporate Governance and Employees in Germany: Changing Linkages, Complementarities, and Tensions [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 20-11-2008Martin Höpner, Gregory Jackson, Antje Kurdelbusch RIETI Discussion Paper. 2004. No. 04-E-008.
This article examines institutional linkages between corporate governance and labour management in Germany. German corporate governance was characterised by the importance of banks, ownership concentration, long-term investment, and stable corporate networks. This system displayed important complementarities with stable long-term employment, investment in worker training, flexible quality production, low variability and dispersion in pay, and cooperative industrial relations during the post-war period. Since the mid-1990s, corporate governance has changed dramatically – a decline in the role of banks, the unwinding of corporate networks, the rise of foreign and institutional investors, en emerging market for corporate control, and changing careers and compensation of top managers. The paper investigates the resulting introduction of shareholder-value management practices and their impact on employees in large German companies. The findings show that these changes are related to the shrinking of stable core employment and the growth of variable pay. However, such tensions with shareholder value management have not undermined employee codetermination and collective bargaining institutions. Both play an important mediating role between capital market pressures and employment outcomes. The implications for the German “model” of corporate governance are discussed.
Опубликовано на портале: 25-11-2008Igor Filatotchev, David E. Guest, Jenifer Piesse, Gregory Jackson, Howard Gospel DTI Economics Working Paper. 2005. No. 13.
This collection of short papers examines the role of corporate governance with regard to human resource management and corporate strategy over the course of the firm life cycle, as well as in diverse institutional environments such as the UK, Germany and Japan.