Oxford Review of Economic Policy
Taxes and transfers 1997-2001 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Tom Clark, Andrew Dilnot, Alissa Goodman Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 18. No. 2. P. 187-201.
Significant change was made to both tax and benefits systems during the period 1997-2001. The impact of the changes which directly affect households is highly progressive, reflecting a significant increase in means-tested benefit levels. But the underlying distribution of income has moved such that overall inequality of income has not fallen, and the government has made less progress on reducing poverty than it had hoped. This paper described the aggregate impact of changes on the level of tax and public spending and on the composition of the tax system. The main changes that were introduced to the system are also discussed. The distributional impact of the main changes directed at personal incomes, and the direction of change in the structure of intervention by government in individual outcomes is presented.
The impact of the regulation of low wages on inequality and labour-market adjustment: A comparative analysis [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Stephen Bazen Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 16. No. 1. P. 57-69.
In all continental European countries there exist non-market mechanisms that determine or regulate wage rates for the low-paid. The experience of three countries that have national minimum wages - France, Belgium, and the Netherlands - and three where low wage rates are determined through widespread collective bargaining - Germany, Italy, and Denmark, are considered. It is found that overall there is less inequality (both wage and income) and less poverty than in the UK and the US, where low wages are less regulated. Furthermore, patterns of labor-market adjustment - employment, unemployment, and gross job flows - vary greatly, suggesting that there is no one-to-one mapping between the presence of mechanisms to regulate low wages and labor-market performance. Furthermore, wage shares have been falling since the early 1980s. It is therefore difficult to attribute high and persistent rates of unemployment found in certain countries to the existence of mechanisms to regulate low wages.
The role of the state in skill formation: evidence from the Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Francis Green, David Ashton, Donna James Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 15. No. 1. P. 82-96.
We propose a new interpretation of the role of the state in skill formation, with reference to three East Asian newly industrialized economies. Rather than see the state as simply redressing externalities, we interpret the state as matching the supply and demand for skills in a rapidly growing economy. This role can be superior to a strategy of allowing education and training institutions to be driven by autonomous processes. The role is most likely to be observed in developmental states. We examine the political mechanisms that have helped to ensure that educational and training policy formation are subordinated to the imperatives of economic growth. While the East Asian model cannot be imported wholesale to western countries such as Britain in different historical circumstances, the example lends credence to the value of the state taking a strategic approach to education and training policy.