Всего статей в данном разделе : 146
Опубликовано на портале: 23-11-2005Г.А. Данишевская Социологические исследования. 1992. № 9. С. 124-133.
Бурное развитие разнообразных форм некорпоративного, единоличного бизнеса способствовало возникновению в экономике западных странах отдельного сектора – «самостоятельной работы». В статье приводится типология, социально-экономическая и демографическая характеристика самостоятельных работников в Великобритании; анализируются мотивы и стимулы, побуждающие этих людей трудиться очень эффективно и творчески. Высказывается предположение, что в перспективе сектор мелкомасштабного единоличного бизнеса в стране охватит наукоемкие области.
«Феномен» семейного бизнеса [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 25-05-2007Инна Васильевна Митрофанова Социологические исследования. 1996. № 10. С. 122-124.
Компаративный (Германия) и ретроспективный (дореволюционная Россия) анализ показывает: малые семейные фирмы, обладающие синергетическим эффектом – один из ключевых элементов устойчивой рыночной структуры. Объясняется это, во-первых, многоэлементностью предпринимательского потенциала семьи, включающего в себя не только физический (имущество) и финансовый (денежные ресурсы), но и человеческий капитал (профессионально-образовательный и интеллектуальный уровень). Во-вторых, самозанятость активизирует трудовую деятельность и, соответственно, улучшает состояние рынка труда на местах.
Опубликовано на портале: 04-05-2006Б.Н. Казанцев Социологические исследования. 1993. № 11. С. 50-57.
На материалах бывших ЦСУ СССР и РСФСР автор анализирует роль и место «теневого сектора» в области мелкорозничной спекулятивной торговли и бытового обслуживания в период 1950–1980-х годов. Показано, что если обращение населения к нелегальным продавцам было связано с дефицитом ряда товаров, то к услугам частных лиц прибегали не столько из-за нехватки бытовых учреждений в ряде регионов страны, сколько ввиду выполнения ими заказов более качественно, быстро и по ценам ниже, чем в государственных мастерских, ателье и т.п.
«Челночный» бизнес в Казани [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 13-02-2006В.В. Иванов, Юрий Юрьевич Комлев, Л.Г. Толчинский Социологические исследования. 1998. № 11. С. 40-44.
Текст содержит результаты конкретных социологических исследований «челночного» сектора торговли в г. Казани (1995 и 1997 гг.), которые показали следующее. «Челночество» стало способом выживания активных и трудоспособных горожан, оказавшихся не у дел в результате стагнации «нормальной» экономики. Однако при наличии некоторых положительных сторон (ориентация на рациональный тип экономического поведения, предприимчивость, инициативность и т.п.) данная форма трудоустройства в конечном счете ведет к маргинализации и депрофессионализации людей, которые вряд ли смогут впоследствии вернуться к прежней профессии.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Monder Ram, Tahir Abbas, Balihar Sanghera Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 2. P. 353-372.
Ethnic minority business activity has often been presented as a vehicle for upward mobility for owners and workers alike. Much attention has focused upon the owners themselves. The co-ethnic labour that such employers usually rely upon has often been treated as unproblematic. This paper aims to illuminate the experiences of workers in ethnic minority owned restaurants. In particular, the widely held view that working in a co-ethnic firm serves as an apprenticeship for eventual self-employment is explored. Rather than co-ethnic ties, workers' labour market experiences highlight the importance of the opportunity structure in shaping employment choices. The evidence of the current research suggests that the goal of self-employment was not widely held; and although many workers did move around to acquire better paid work, this was not part of a strategic route to becoming a restaurateur. Some workers did cherish such ambitions, but were inhibited by major obstacles. These included intense competition, high start-up costs, and a lack of know-how. The labour market and social context of the firm often militated against the hazardous proposition of self-employment.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Yutaka Imai, Masaaki Kawagoe Oxford Review of Economic Policy. . Vol. 16. No. 2. P. 114-123.
It is argued that the comparatively low levels of business start-ups in Japan need not be a matter of concern insofar as the pattern of growth relying on existing companies persists. But the declining trend of start-up rates may be worrisome for it may indicate waning entrepreneurship and weakening mechanisms of resource reallocation and economic growth. Policy measures to promote business start-ups are not based on well founded studies at an aggregate level, which are lacking in the absence of comparable data, but rather are inspired by the successful U.S. experience. This paper looks into two specific areas of policy-private equity markets and bankruptcy-where important progress has been made, and points to further scope for improvement.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Nonna Barkhatova, Peter McMylor, Rosemary Mellor British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 2. P. 249-269.
Aspects of the emergence of an entrepreneurial middle-class in Russia are explored via a series of interview-based case studies. The origins of those studied in the professional or highly skilled workers in the former Soviet Union are noted. The complexity and fragility of the circumstances of these entrepreneurs are revealed and it is suggested that commentary in both Russia and the West that pins its hopes for social stability on the emergence of a new property owning middle class in Russia are, at best, premature.
Опубликовано на портале: 24-05-2004Richard J. Boden Journal of Socio-Economics. 1999. Vol. 28. No. 3. P. 351-364.
Female self-employment has risen strongly over the last few decades and has become an important labor market development. The few studies that have examined women's decision to become self-employed indicate that this decision is complex. Women are more likely than men to shoulder family-related obligations, especially child rearing, and there is evidence that this affects some women's propensity to become self-employed. Also, women have yet to achieve full economic parity with men in wage employment. How gender inequality in wage earnings may precipitate some women's selection out of wage employment and into self-employment is examined. It is found that women's lower wage returns to observed worker characteristics have a positive and significant effect on women's decision to switch from wage employment to self-employment.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Ton Chee Kiong, Yong Pit Kee British Journal of Sociology. 1998. Vol. 49. No. 1. P. 75-96.
This paper, based on fieldwork conducted in Singapore and Malaysia, examines the social foundations and organizational principles of Chinese business firms focussing in particular on the inclination to incorporate personal relationships in decision making. It identifies three key aspects of personalism: personal control, personal guanxi relationships, and interpersonal trust or xinyong. Personal control is effected largely through depending on people whom one personally trust as this would reduce risks and afford better business control. The paper also examines the dynamics between guanxi and xinyong and how these ideals are played out in reality. A central argument is that economic decisions are not based solely on market considerations. Rather, they are embedded int he context of larger social relations and institutional forces which shape, reinforce, as well as challenge, a set of behaviours or organizational structures.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Alison J. Wellington Contemporary Economic Policy. 2001. Vol. 19. No. 4. P. 465-478.
This article estimates the importance of health insurance coverage on the probability of self-employment. Using data from the 1993 Current Population Survey (CPS), the author focuses on the impact of having health insurance through one's spouse on the likelihood of self-employment. The best estimates suggest that a guaranteed alternative source of health insurance would increase the probability of self-employment between 23 and 4.4 percentage points for husbands and 1.2 and 4.6 percentage points for wives. The author's more conservative estimates suggest that universal coverage could increase the percentage of self-employed in the workforce by 2 to 3.5 percentage points.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-07-2003Jimy M. Sanders, Victor Nee American Sociological Review. 1996. Vol. 61. No. 2. P. 231-249.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Philip Hadfield, Steve Hall, Dick Hobbs British Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 51. No. 4. P. 707-717.
This paper focuses upon the emergence of the night-time economy both materially and culturally as a powerful manifestation of post-industrial society. This emergence features two key processes: firstly a shift in economic development from the industrial to the post-industrial; secondly a significant orientation of urban governance involving a move away from the traditional managerial functions of local service provision, towards an en trepreneurial stance primarily focused on the facilitation of economic growth. Central to this new economic era is the identification and promotion of liminality. The State's apparent inability to control these new leisure zones constitutes the creation of an urban frontier that is governed by commercial imperatives.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-07-2003Alejandro Portes, Min Zhou American Sociological Review. 1996. Vol. 61. No. 2. P. 219-230.
Social networks and self-employment [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002David Allen Journal of Socio-Economics. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 5. P. 487-501.
This article applies social network concepts, developed in sociology, to the analysis of the self-employment decision. Theory suggests that if one's social network provides social support so as to reduce the costs of self-employment, those with more effective social networks may possess a greater incentive to attempt self-employment, ceteris paribus. Empirical investigation of this hypothesis is conducted using a unique new data set, the Wisconsin Entrepreneurial Climate Study, which allows analysis of self-employment, in a social context. Results illustrate that the individual self-employment choice is highly influenced by the size and composition of the social network and that women receive less influential social support for entrepreneurial activity than men receive, a finding that may provide an explanation for gender differences in self-employment likelihood.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2005Ed Clarke Work, Employment, and Society. 2000. Vol. 14. No. 3. P. 439-458.
The development of new private business has both economic and social significance for the post-communist transition. New business firms offer industrial dynamism and flexibility to former command economies typically dominated by gigantic monopolies, while, unlike privatised enterprises, not reproducing formerly institutionalised practices. They further presage the rise of new social groups and values with direct implications for civic, social and political renewal. The author argues that conventional economic theories of business foundation, which presume the stable institutional conditions of Western-style capitalism, are by themselves poor explanations of the development of private business in transitional conditions. The paper proposes instead a social-institutional approach, in which small firms are examined as a socially constructed process undertaken by business founders within ambiguous institutional circumstances characterised by historical legacies and simultaneous discontinuities. The empirical findings allow the exploration of the process of business founding by former nomenklatura. Their stock of inherited social capital gave them a privileged position in the contest to construct new firms and thereby access to the legitimate accumulation of economic capital, which completed their personal assimilation to the emergent form of market-economic capitalism. The paper concludes by assessing the social implications of these observations.