American Journal of Sociology
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Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Vivek Chibber American Journal of Sociology. 2002. Vol. 107. No. 4. P. 951-989.
There has been a resuscitation of the view that the state can play an important role in the industrialization process. But, for states to be successful in fostering development, they need a considerable degree of internal cohesiveness, which is generally supplied by the presence of a robust, Weberian bureaucratic corps. This article argues that, while internal cohesiveness is indeed critical, bureaucratic rule following can produce results in the opposite direction, depending on the interagency relations that obtain within the state. The effect of interagency relations is demonstrated through an examination of India and Korea. Both have worked to foster industrialization, and both are endowed with relatively healthy bureaucracies. However, the Indian state was paralyzed and fragmented, while its Korean counterpart did secure the requisite internal coherence. Not only did the culture of rule following fail to generate a cohesive state in India, but it, in fact, worked against such an outcome.
Promotion Paradox: Organizational Mortality and Employee Promotion Chances in Silicon Valley Firms, 1946-1996 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004Damon J. Phillips American Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 106. No. 4. P. 1058-1098.
This article argues that there is a promotion paradox a negative relation between firm life chances and employee promotion chances. Author argues that this is due to a firms bargaining power, which increases with firms competitive strength. Author finds strong support using data on 50 years of Silicon Valley law firms and attorneys. Young, small, specialist, and low-status firms are more likely to fail but are also contexts with the highest promotion likelihood. Moreover, except for those firms that are "near death," an associate's promotion likelihood increases with the law firm's probability of failure.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004Olav Sorenson, Stuart E. Toby American Journal of Sociology. 1970. Vol. 106. No. 6. P. 1546-1588.
Sociological investigations of economic exchange reveal how institutions and social structures shape transaction patterns among economic actors. This article explores how interfirm networks in the U.S. venture capital (VC) market affect spatial patterns of exchange. Evidence suggests that information about potential investment opportunities generally circulates within geographic and industry spaces. In turn, the circumscribed flow of information within these spaces contributes to the geographic- and industry-localization of VC investments. Empirical analyses demonstrate that the social networks in the VC community built up through the industry's extensive use of syndicated investing diffuse information across boundaries and therefore expand the spatial radius of exchange. Venture capitalists that build axial positions in the industry's coinvestment network invest more frequently in spatially distant companies. Thus, variation in actors' positioning within the structure of the market appears to differentiate market participants' ability to overcome boundaries that otherwise would curtail exchange.