Всего статей в данном разделе : 381
Опубликовано на портале: 23-11-2005Г.А. Данишевская Социологические исследования. 1992. № 9. С. 124-133.
Бурное развитие разнообразных форм некорпоративного, единоличного бизнеса способствовало возникновению в экономике западных странах отдельного сектора – «самостоятельной работы». В статье приводится типология, социально-экономическая и демографическая характеристика самостоятельных работников в Великобритании; анализируются мотивы и стимулы, побуждающие этих людей трудиться очень эффективно и творчески. Высказывается предположение, что в перспективе сектор мелкомасштабного единоличного бизнеса в стране охватит наукоемкие области.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-11-2006Stephen Wood, Michael Clinton, Peter Totterdell International Small Business Journal. 2006. Vol. 24. No. 4. P. 179-203.
Portfolio working has been championed, most noticeably by Handy (1995), as a new way in which we should understand many working lives. It is said to be characterized by obtaining and doing a variety of pieces of work for a number of different clients or employers and is suggested by many to be an increasing practice. To understand how individuals who work in this way experience portfolio working, 26 semi-structured interviews were carried out with a range of portfolio workers and then analysed using a grounded theory technique. The model that was generated suggested that a particular combination of features characterized portfolio working: the self-management of work, the independent generation of work and income, the development of a variety of work and clients, and a working environment situated outside any single organization. The model further demonstrated how these combined features engendered three main psychological processes central to the experience of portfolio working: autonomy, uncertainty and social isolation. The nature of the processes had a subsequent impact upon the individual's work intensity, well-being and work–life balance. Personal and situational characteristics also emerged as playing a notable role in how portfolio working is experienced.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Bijou Yang, David Lester Journal of Socio-Economics. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 3. P. 281-290.
The role of culture in economic affairs was first recognized by Max Weber who attributed the rise of modern capitalism to the Protestant ethic. More recently, the contribution of cultural factors to economic success or failure in different countries or regions of the world has been documented. The present paper joins this effort by demonstrating the impact of culture on unemployment empirically. The national character traits of neuroticism and extraversion were added to a regression analysis of unemployment developed by Nickell (1998).
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Monder Ram, Tahir Abbas, Balihar Sanghera Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 2. P. 353-372.
Ethnic minority business activity has often been presented as a vehicle for upward mobility for owners and workers alike. Much attention has focused upon the owners themselves. The co-ethnic labour that such employers usually rely upon has often been treated as unproblematic. This paper aims to illuminate the experiences of workers in ethnic minority owned restaurants. In particular, the widely held view that working in a co-ethnic firm serves as an apprenticeship for eventual self-employment is explored. Rather than co-ethnic ties, workers' labour market experiences highlight the importance of the opportunity structure in shaping employment choices. The evidence of the current research suggests that the goal of self-employment was not widely held; and although many workers did move around to acquire better paid work, this was not part of a strategic route to becoming a restaurateur. Some workers did cherish such ambitions, but were inhibited by major obstacles. These included intense competition, high start-up costs, and a lack of know-how. The labour market and social context of the firm often militated against the hazardous proposition of self-employment.
Bad jobs in America: standard and nonstandard employment relations and job quality in the United States [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004Arne L. Kalleberg, Ken Hudson American Sociological Review. 2000. Vol. 65. No. 2. P. 256-278.
The prevalence of nonstandard jobs is a matter of concern if, as many assume, such jobs are bad. We examine the relationship between nonstandard employment (on-call work and day labor, temporary-help agency employment, employment with contract companies, independent contracting, other self-employment, and part-time employment in "conventional" jobs) and exposure to "bad" job characteristics, using data from the 1995 Current Population Survey. Of workers age 18 and over, 31 percent are in some type of nonstandard employment. To assess the link between type of employment and bad jobs, we conceptualize "bad jobs" as those with low pay and without access to health insurance and pension benefits. About one in seven jobs in the United States is bad on these three dimensions. Nonstandard employment strongly increases workers' exposure to bad job characteristics, net of controls for workers' personal characteristics, family status, occupation, and industry. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.
Being independent is a great thing: Subjective evaluations of self-employment and hierarchy [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 26-11-2008Matthias Benz, Bruno S. Frey Economica. 2008. Vol. 75. No. 298. P. 362-383.
One can be independent, or one can be subject to decisions made by others. This paper argues that this difference, embodied in the institutional distinction between the decision-making procedures 'market' and 'hierarchy', affects individual wellbeing beyond outcomes. Taking self-employment as an important case of independence, it is shown that the self-employed derive higher satisfaction from work than those employed in organizations, irrespective of income gained or hours worked. This is evidence for procedural utility: people value not only outcomes, but also the processes leading to outcomes.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-01-2007Geoffrey M. Hodgson Journal of Economic Issues. 2003. Vol. 37. No. 2. P. 471-478.
Under capitalism there is a potential for increasing socioeconomic complexity and greater specialization of skills.1 One implication is that there is a potential for increasing inequalities of wealth, income, and power on both a national and international scale. What follows is an updated, broad-brush account of possible future developments in a knowledge-intensive capitalist economy. They can themselves be manifest in different ways, in a number of quite different institutional frameworks.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Lane Kenworthy American Sociological Review. 2002. Vol. 67. No. 3. P. 367-388.
A number of studies have found an association between corporatist institutions and low unemployment in the 1970s and 1980s. Three gaps in the understanding of corporatism's labor market effects are addressed. The results suggest that wage coordination was conducive to low unemployment in the 1980s because it fostered moderation in labor costs, spurred faster economic growth, and encouraged governments to more aggressively pursue policies to reduce unemployment.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Veronika Tacke, Oriel Sullivan British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 2. P. 331-347.
Some macro-sociological questions about changes in broad categories of time-use are addressed. Reference is made to some well-known sociological and historical accounts of such change, and to the fact that time-use diary data has only relatively recently become available for analyzing trends over time. The data used are drawn from a comparative cross-time data archive held by the Institute for Social and Economic Research at Essex University, comprising successive time-use diary surveys from a range of industrialized countries collected from the 1960s to the 1990s. The time use evidence suggests relative stability in the balance between work and leisure time over the period covered by the analyses. Some alternative explanations are advanced for why there seems to be a gap between this evidence and, on the one hand, the burgeoning literature in both academic and popular media addressing the time famine and, on the other, people's professed experience of what is happening to their time.
Dependent Forms of Self-Employment in the UK: Identifying Workers on the Border between Employment and Self-Employment [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2008Ulrike Mühlberger, René Böheim IZA Discussion Papers. 2006. No. 1963 .
We analyse the characteristics of workers who provide work on the basis of a civil or commercial contract, but who are dependent on or integrated into the firm for which they work. We argue that these dependent self-employed lose their rights under labour law, receive less favourable benefits from social security protection and are often beyond trade union representation and collective bargaining. Using data from the British Labour Force Survey we test two hypotheses: (1) Dependent self-employed workers are significantly different from both employees and (independent) self-employed individuals, thus forming a distinct group. (2) Dependent self-employed workers have lower labour market skills, less labour market attachment and, thus, less autonomy than self-employed workers. The data support our hypothesis that dependent self-employed workers are a distinct labour market group which differs from both employees and independent self-employed individuals. Men, older workers, those with low education and a low job tenure have greater odds of working in dependent self-employment than their counterparts. Our results suggest that dependent forms of self-employment are used by firms to increase labour flexibility.
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2003Xiaogang Wu, Yu Xie American Sociological Review. 2003. Vol. 68. No. 3. P. 425-442.
Previous work on the market transition in reform-era China has missed the direct link between individuals' labour market history and individuals' labour market outcome. A typology of workers is developed based on individuals' labour market histories, and a model of selective mobility of workers from the state sector to the market sector is offered as an explanation for higher earnings returns to education in the market sector. Analysis of data from an urban survey in China reveals that commonly observed higher earnings returns to education in the market sector are limited only to recent market entrants, and that early market entrants resemble state workers in both their level of earnings and returns to education. These results challenge the prevailing wisdom that education is necessarily more highly rewarded in the market sector. Thus it is concluded that higher returns to education in the market sector should not be construed as being caused by marketization per se, and instead that the sorting process of workers in labour markets helps explain the sectoral differentials.
Dual-Earner Couples in Britain and France: Gender Divisions of Domestic Labour and Parenting Work in Different Welfare States [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Jan Windebank Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 2. P. 269-290.
In recent years, much cross-national research on women's work has focused on the impact of the state in creating the conditions to enable women to combine paid work and motherhood. However, when dealing with women's domestic responsibilities, this research has concentrated heavily on caring functions, whilst largely ignoring the importance of other basic household chores. Furthermore, few studies have addressed the question of how state policy concerning women, work and childcare impacts on the ways in which parenting and domestic duties are constructed and distributed between mothers, fathers and others in the everyday experiences of individuals. The present article addresses both of these questions through evidence gathered from a qualitative cross-national comparative study of the child-care strategies of two groups of women, one French and one British, working in secretarial or clerical occupations, living with a partner and with at least one child aged under twelve. Minimal differences concerning the gender division of domestic and parenting work are discovered between these two national groups. This finding is then used to question some of the theoretical perspectives regarding the relationship between women's greater participation in employment and men's greater participation in domestic and parenting work.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Sourushe Zandvakili Journal of Socio-Economics. 2000. Vol. 29. No. 1. P. 73-89.
The labor market in the United States has gone through a number of noticeable changes, one of which is a rise participation of women in the labor force. A number of studies have investigated the consequences of these changes on wage, income, or earnings inequality in a static framework. This study investigated the consequences of these changes on earnings inequality over time. The earnings inequality among male- and female-headed households is compared. The factors are considered that might have influenced the earnings inequality among female-headed households. Short-term and long-term inequality was measured from 1978-1986. It was found that short-term inequalities generally have a rising trend and contain transitory components; long-term inequalities declined in the early years because of a smoothing of transitory components; and within-group inequalities are the principle determinant of overall inequality. Education, race, age, and marital status were considered as possible contributors to the overall inequality. Education and race were shown to be the most influential factor explaining inequality among female-headed households and explained a third of the observed inequality. Earnings stability profiles reveal the existence of permanent and chronic inequality.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Irene Browne American Sociological Review. 1997. Vol. 62. No. 2. P. 236-252.
For the first time in this century, Black women are participating in the labor force at lower rates than are White women. The Black-White gap in female labor force participation is driven by those in the severest need of income-women heading households. I compare three explanations of the Black-White gap in labor force participation among female household heads-lack of human capital, lack of opportunities resulting from industrial restructuring, and disarticulation from mainstream institutions as described by theories of the "underclass." Using a representative national sample from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I find that lower rates of labor force participation among Black women heading households are determined by Black-White differences in human capital as well as by characteristics associated with a breakdown in the processes linking Black women to the labor market. Overall, the largest impediments to labor force participation among women heading households are dropping out of high school, having a child under the age of six in the household, and being a long-term welfare recipient.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Rosemary Crompton, Fiona Harris British Journal of Sociology. 1998. Vol. 49. No. 1. P. 118-136.
Explanations of the persisting differences in the structure of men's and women's employment have long been debated in the social sciences. Sociological explanations have tended to stress the continuing significance of structural constraints on women's employment opportunities, which persist, despite the removal of formal barriers. Neo-classical economics, in contrast, have emphasized the significance of individual choice, an argument which has been recently endorsed by Hakim who suggests that patterns of occupational segregation reflect the outcome of the choices made by different 'types' of women. In this paper, a previous debate relating to the explanatory utility of men's 'orientations to work' is used to argue that employment structures are the outcome of both choice and constraint, and that this is also the case for women. The argument is illustrated with evidence from cross-nationally comparative biographical interviews carried out in five countries