British Journal of Sociology
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Adam Swift British Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 51. No. 4. P. 663-679.
Abstract: Distinguishing between an explanatory and a normative interest in social stratification, this paper considers the relation between class analysis and the value of equality. Starting from the familiar distinction between (in)equality of position and (in)equality of opportunity, and noting the extent to which mobility research focuses on the latter, it suggests that class positions can themselves be characterized in terms of the opportunities they yield to those occupymg them. This enables the clear identification of the kinds of inequality that are and are not addressed by research findings presented in terms of class categories, and odds ratios. The significance of those findings from a normative perspective is then discussed, and their limitations are emphasized - though the paper also explains in what ways they are indeed of normative relevance.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Richard Breen, John H. Goldthorpe British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 1. P. 1-27.
Saunders' (1996, 1997) recent work claiming that contemporary British society is to a large extent 'meritocratic' is criticized on conceptual and technical grounds. A reanalysis of the National Child Development Study data-set, used by Saunders, is presented. This reveals that while merit, defined in terms of ability and effort, does play a part in determining individuals' class destinations, the effect of class origins remains strong. Children of less advantaged origins need to show substantially more merit than children from more advantaged origins in order to gain similar class positions. These differences in findings to some extent arise from the correction of biases introduced by Saunders; but there are also features of his own results, consistent with those reported in the reanalysis, which he appears to not fully have appreciated.
Class structure in a deeply divided society: Class and ethnic inequality in Israel, 1974-1991 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Meir Yaish British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 3. P. 409-439.
Despite the fact that in many societies ethnicity plays an important role in stratification processes, a common view held by students of stratification argues that the role of ascriptive criteria in stratification processes is diminishing, and that the main axis of the modern stratification system is rooted in the division of labor in the marketplace. Despite this, most Israeli sociologists have taken the ethnic and national cleavages to be the main axes of stratification in Israel. This paper utilizes the 1974 and 1991 mobility surveys in Israel to examine changes over time in the association between ethnicity/nationality and class position in the Israeli stratification structure. It also examines the extent to which inequality of opportunity within the Israel class structure is affected by ethnicity/nationality. Here it is found that the ethnic/national cleavage in Israel appears to have played a less important role over time in the allocation of Israeli men to class positions.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-11-2005Rhonda Cockerill, Jan Barnsley British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 1. P. 97-117.
A case study of gender and earnings in pharmacy - a profession characterized by its rapid recruitment of female practitioners - is presented. Disparities in earnings between male and female pharmacists in Ontario are accounted for with the aid of human capital theory and gender stratification theory. Data is drawn from a random sample of 463 Ontario pharmacists. A consistent sex gap is found in earnings regardless of occupation level of practitioners and net of such factors as hours worked, commitment to work, hours devoted to childcare, absences from the labor market, and years since graduation. Instead, the main reason why women in pharmacy earn less than males is because they remain employees throughout their careers. However, additional factors responsible for the depressed earnings of female practitioners were not found. The findings are discussed in light of the claims of gender stratification and human capital theory.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Susan McRae British Journal of Sociology. 1997. Vol. 48. No. 3. P. 384-405.
The paper examines the relationships between population and household change, on the one hand, and labour market/employment change, on the other, and considers how these relationships have contributed to the growth of inequality. The perspective of the paper is sociological, although much of the work done in these areas has been carried out by demographers and economists. Areas where sociological research remains to be done are highlighted. Developments in patters of fertility and in households are linked to the growth of individualism and to changes in the labour market, and shown to be implicated jointly in the marked growth of inequality in Britain. The paper argues that future research must link households and labour markets, and work towards understanding emerging new relationships between working and private lives, between living arrangements and labour supply, and between individual freedom and social integration.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Hiroshi Ishida British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 4. P. 579-604.
This study examines intergenerational class mobility in Japan using cross-national comparisons with Western nations and cross-temporal comparisons of five national surveys conducted in postwar Japan. Cross-national comparisons highlight the similarity in relative mobility pattern between Japan and Western nations and at the same time the Japanese distinctiveness in absolute mobility rates especially regarding the demographic character of the Japanese manual working class. The results of cross-temporal comparisons of mobility pattern report some systematic trends in total mobility, inflow and outflow rates, reflecting the Japanese experience of late but rapid industrialization.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Richard Breen British Journal of Sociology. 1997. Vol. 48. No. 3. P. 429-449.
This paper develops a model of intergeneratiotial mobility and intragetierational inequality that allows us to explore the relationship between economic growth and social mobility. The model is used to analyze the neo-liberal theory of stratification and to assess the consequences of some of the criticisms that have been made of it. In particular, the intergenerational transmission of wealth and privilege, and the existence of ethnic, gender and other forms of ascriptive disadvantage, reduce economic efficiency, although they do not always diminish the extent of social mobility. Furthermore, excessive intragenerational inequality may inhibit, rather than encourage, economic growth. We show that there is no necessary link between rates of social mobility and levels of economic growth. This, we suggest, provides an explanation of why rates of social mobility show very little cross national variation and display no very evident trend over time towards greater societal openness.
In search of the wage-labour/service contract: New evidence on the validity of the Goldthorpe class schema [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Geoffrey Evans, Colin Mills British Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 51. No. 4. P. 755-756.
In this paper we examine new empirical evidence on the coherence and magnitude of the main classes in the Goldthorpe class schema. Particular attention is paid to issues that have recently been a source of academic dispute: the coherence and size of the service class and the distinction between the service class and intermediate classes. Using recently available British data collected by the Office for National Statistics we examine: 1. the extent to which measures of class-relevant job characteristics are empirically discriminated by the categories of the schema, 2. the structure of a contract type dimension of employment relations conceived of as a categorical latent variable, and 3. the association between this latent variable and both the Goldthorpe class schema and a related measure socio-economic group (SEG).
Is there an underclass in Britain? [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Alan Buckingham British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 1. P. 49-75.
The underclass is defined and the predictions are tested of three competing theories in the underclass debate. Using the National Child Development Study for the analysis it is found that an underclass suffering from a lack of qualifications, low cognitive ability and chronic joblessness exists. The validity of making a distinction between the working class and an underclass has often been questioned both because of the dubious history of such a distinction and because it is not believed that such a distinction is empirically true. The results contradict this assertion by finding the underclass to be distinctive from the working class in terms of patterns of family formation, work commitment and political allegiance. The distinct attitudes of the underclass, when coupled with evidence of inter- and intra-generational stability of membership, provide early evidence that a new social class, the underclass, may now exist in Britain.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002British Journal of Sociology. 1998. Vol. 49. No. 1. P. 97-117.
The present paper offers a replication of an analysis by Sшrensen and Mclanahan (1987) of 1940-1980 USA data on trends in married womens economic dependency, this time using Dutch income data for 1979-1991. The results show that in the Netherlands, as opposed to the USA, a vast majority of the wives are still completely or strongly dependent on their husbands income. Yet, also Dutch wives economic dependency is decreasing at a significant rate. Despite clear life course differences that yet seem to persist, we observe declining levels of dependency within each age group. This declining trend seems to reflect mostly changes in married womens employment status over time. An implication of the reported trend, however, is that it becomes increasingly important to study the influence of the social position of both partners.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Siu-lun Wong, Janet W. Salaf British Journal of Sociology. 1998. Vol. 49. No. 3. P. 358-74.
In this paper, we argue that it would be fruitful to regard personal networks as a form of capital capable of generating economic returns by drawing on our research findings on the recent wave of emigration from Hong Kong. By putting network capital on a par with economic and cultural capital, we seek to identify its distinctive features in terms of institutionalization, capacity, moral economy, and processes of conversion and reproduction. In substantiating our argument, we present some quantitative evidence from our survey data on the uneven distribution of kinship ties which can be mobilized for emigration among different occupational classes. We then make use of our in-depth interview data to show that there is a qualitative variation too in the type of networks used by different occupational classes for emigration purposes. We conclude by reflecting on the implications of the concept of network capital for the study of migration, class formation, and the global economy.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002British Journal of Sociology. 1996. Vol. 47. No. 3. P. 447-474.
The paper takes as its point of departure Lockwood's classic account of the class situation of the Blackcoated Worker. It addresses the issue of whether the rapid spread of new technologies since the 1980s has been accompanied by a change in employer policies that has undercut the distinctiveness of the work and labour market situations of lower non-manual employees, Drawing on data from a national survey carried out in 1992, it argues that, in technically advanced work settings, there is some evidence of a convergence between lower non- manual and manual workers in the nature of relationships with management and in job security. While management styles have become more consultative for manual workers, control over work time has become more formalized for lower non-manual workers. Further, the classes had become more similar due to a marked decline in the security of white-collar employees. None the less, lower non-manual and manual work remained quite distinct in two fundamental respects: the requirements for general conceptual skills and the extent to which there were perspectives for longer-term career advancement. Hence differences in class position are likely to continue to have important implications both for people's life styles and for their wider life chances.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Sara Arber, Jay Ginn British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 3. P. 519-539.
This study examines the extent of ethnic disadvantage in private pension scheme arrangements and analyzes variation according to gender and specific ethnic group, using 3 years of the British Family Resources Survey, which provides information on over 97,000 adults aged 20-59, including over 5,700 from ethnic minorities. Both men and women in minority ethnic groups were less likely to have private pension coverage than their white counterparts but the extent of the difference was most marked for Pakistanis and Bangladeshis. Ethnicity interacted with gender, so that blacks showed the least gender inequality in private pension arrangements, reflecting the relatively similar full-time employment rates of black men and women. A minority ethnic disadvantage in private pension coverage, for both men and women, remained after taking account of age, marital and parental status, years of education, employment variables, class and income.
Political ideology and popular beliefs about class and opportunity: evidence from a survey experiment [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Geoffrey Evans British Journal of Sociology. 1997. Vol. 48. No. 3. P. 450-470.
This paper examines popular understanding of class inequalities in opportunity using an experimental approach to assess implicit as well as explicit comprehension. Three competing representations of popular beliefs are compared: a 'class inequality' model, implying widespread belief in class-related inequalities of opportunity; a 'meritocratic' view of achievement, in which emphasis is placed on individual responsibility; and an 'ideological polarization' model, which assumes that beliefs emphasizing class inequality or merit varv with left-right ideology. Predictions derived from these ideas are tested using a national survey with an experimental design, in which respondents are presented with vignettes designed to elicit their beliefs as to how and why people from different class backgrounds obtain middle-class or working-class occupations. As predicted by the class inequality model, there is clear evidence of the impact of tacit assumptions about class structured inequality of opportunity on expectations, judgments of responsibility and explanations of occupational attainment. Even among rightwing respondents, who are more likely to endorse the rhetoric of individual responsibility, there remains an implicit awareness of social class influences on life-chances, suggesting the pervasive presence of these beliefs in popular understanding of social processes.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Rod Bond, Peter Saunders British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 2. P. 217-249.
Using data from the National Child Development Study, a complex path model is developed predicting the occupational grade achieved by 4,298 employed British males at age 33. Using various measures of class origins, parental support, qualifications, and individual ability and ambition, a linear structural equations model is developed which achieves a good fit to the data. The model demonstrates that individual ability is by far the strongest influence on occupational achievement, that motivation is also important, and that factors like class background and parental support, while significant, are relatively much weaker. It is concluded that occupational selection in Britain appears to take place on meritocratic principles.