Всего статей в данном разделе : 298
In search of the wage-labour/service contract: New evidence on the validity of the Goldthorpe class schema [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Geoffrey Evans, Colin Mills British Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 51. No. 4. P. 755-756.
In this paper we examine new empirical evidence on the coherence and magnitude of the main classes in the Goldthorpe class schema. Particular attention is paid to issues that have recently been a source of academic dispute: the coherence and size of the service class and the distinction between the service class and intermediate classes. Using recently available British data collected by the Office for National Statistics we examine: 1. the extent to which measures of class-relevant job characteristics are empirically discriminated by the categories of the schema, 2. the structure of a contract type dimension of employment relations conceived of as a categorical latent variable, and 3. the association between this latent variable and both the Goldthorpe class schema and a related measure socio-economic group (SEG).
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Cecilia L. Ridgeway American Sociological Review. 1997. Vol. 62. No. 2. P. 218-235.
How can we explain the persistence of gender hierarchy over transformations in its socioeconomic base? Part of the answer lies in the mediation of gender inequality by taken-for-granted interactional processes that rewrite inequality into new institutional arrangements. The problems of interacting cause actors to automatically sex-categorize others and, thus, to cue gender stereotypes that have various effects on interactional outcomes, usually by modifying the performance of other, more salient identities. Because changes in the status dimension of gender stereotypes lag behind changes in resource inequalities, interactional status processes can reestablish gender inequalities in new structural forms. Interactional sex categorization also biases the choice of comparison others, causing men and women to judge differently the rewards available to them. Operating in workplace relations, these processes conserve inequality by driving the gender-labeling of jobs, constructing people as gender-interested actors, contributing to employers' discriminatory preferences, and mediating men's and women's perceptions of alternatives and their willingness to settle for given job outcomes.
Is there an underclass in Britain? [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Alan Buckingham British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 1. P. 49-75.
The underclass is defined and the predictions are tested of three competing theories in the underclass debate. Using the National Child Development Study for the analysis it is found that an underclass suffering from a lack of qualifications, low cognitive ability and chronic joblessness exists. The validity of making a distinction between the working class and an underclass has often been questioned both because of the dubious history of such a distinction and because it is not believed that such a distinction is empirically true. The results contradict this assertion by finding the underclass to be distinctive from the working class in terms of patterns of family formation, work commitment and political allegiance. The distinct attitudes of the underclass, when coupled with evidence of inter- and intra-generational stability of membership, provide early evidence that a new social class, the underclass, may now exist in Britain.
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2003Andrew G. Walder American Sociological Review. 2002. Vol. 67. No. 2. P. 231-253.
When market reform generates rapid growth in an agrarian subsistence economy, changes in inequality may be due to economic growth and structural change rather than to the intrinsic features of markets. The case of post-Mao China is examined using nationally representative survey data gathered in 1996 to address unresolved questions about findings from 1980s' surveys.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002British Journal of Sociology. 1998. Vol. 49. No. 1. P. 97-117.
The present paper offers a replication of an analysis by Sшrensen and Mclanahan (1987) of 1940-1980 USA data on trends in married womens economic dependency, this time using Dutch income data for 1979-1991. The results show that in the Netherlands, as opposed to the USA, a vast majority of the wives are still completely or strongly dependent on their husbands income. Yet, also Dutch wives economic dependency is decreasing at a significant rate. Despite clear life course differences that yet seem to persist, we observe declining levels of dependency within each age group. This declining trend seems to reflect mostly changes in married womens employment status over time. An implication of the reported trend, however, is that it becomes increasingly important to study the influence of the social position of both partners.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Siu-lun Wong, Janet W. Salaf British Journal of Sociology. 1998. Vol. 49. No. 3. P. 358-74.
In this paper, we argue that it would be fruitful to regard personal networks as a form of capital capable of generating economic returns by drawing on our research findings on the recent wave of emigration from Hong Kong. By putting network capital on a par with economic and cultural capital, we seek to identify its distinctive features in terms of institutionalization, capacity, moral economy, and processes of conversion and reproduction. In substantiating our argument, we present some quantitative evidence from our survey data on the uneven distribution of kinship ties which can be mobilized for emigration among different occupational classes. We then make use of our in-depth interview data to show that there is a qualitative variation too in the type of networks used by different occupational classes for emigration purposes. We conclude by reflecting on the implications of the concept of network capital for the study of migration, class formation, and the global economy.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002British Journal of Sociology. 1996. Vol. 47. No. 3. P. 447-474.
The paper takes as its point of departure Lockwood's classic account of the class situation of the Blackcoated Worker. It addresses the issue of whether the rapid spread of new technologies since the 1980s has been accompanied by a change in employer policies that has undercut the distinctiveness of the work and labour market situations of lower non-manual employees, Drawing on data from a national survey carried out in 1992, it argues that, in technically advanced work settings, there is some evidence of a convergence between lower non- manual and manual workers in the nature of relationships with management and in job security. While management styles have become more consultative for manual workers, control over work time has become more formalized for lower non-manual workers. Further, the classes had become more similar due to a marked decline in the security of white-collar employees. None the less, lower non-manual and manual work remained quite distinct in two fundamental respects: the requirements for general conceptual skills and the extent to which there were perspectives for longer-term career advancement. Hence differences in class position are likely to continue to have important implications both for people's life styles and for their wider life chances.
Occupational Gender Segregation [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 28-01-2003Robert M. Blackburn, Jennifer Jarman Social Research Update. 1997. No. 16.
Occupational gender segregation has been at the heart of debates about gender inequality. High levels of segregation have been considered to be a significant factor in the discrepancy between the wages of women and men, to impose constraints on careers, and generally to be at the root of gender inequalities. The inequalities of segregation are primarily located in market employment, but they spill over into all aspects of life. Thus, the subject raises significant questions of social justice, of the efficient utilisation of human resources, of the structuring of labour markets, and of wider social aspects of work and family life. While there may be a wide consensus about the importance of the subject, there is less agreement about precisely what the term segregation encompasses. This situation can lead to disputes over substantive matters. Furthermore, even when there is agreement about what should be measured, there are disagreements about how best to do this. Accordingly, our purpose here is to clarify some of the conceptual and measurement issues. This Update first discusses the conceptualisation of segregation. It then presents a short discussion of the major indices that have been used to measure segregation, along with an abbreviated discussion of their shortcomings and our approach to overcoming these. Finally, we reconsider the terms vertical segregation and horizontal segregation, and suggest some new measurement possibilities.
On Inequality Comparisons [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2003Gary S. Fields, John C.H. Fei Econometrica. 1978. Vol. 46. No. 2. P. 303-306.
In this paper, we have developed an approach to inequality comparisons which differs from the conventional one. Beginning by postulating three axioms, we showed that the axiomatic system so constructed is sufficient to justify the Lorenz criterion for inequality comparisons. However, like the Lorenz criterion, the axiomatic system is incomplete. Past researchers have achieved completeness by the use of cardinal inequality measures. We showed that many but by no means all of the commonly used indices satisfy our three axioms. The ones which do satisfy the axioms agree on the ranking of distributions whose Lorenz curves do not intersect. However, when Lorenz curves do intersect, the various measures partition the income distribution space differently. Since the three axioms are insufficient to determine the specific partition to use, the use of any of the conventional measures implicitly accepts the additional welfare judgments associated with that measure. The key issue for inequality comparisons is the reasonableness of the ordering criterion, which in the case of cardinal measures is the index itself. An axiomatic approach is probably the ideal method for confronting this issue, because the reasonable properties (i.e., the axioms) are postulated explicitly. At minimum, this approach facilitates communication by enabling (and indeed requiring) one to set forth clearly his own viewpoints and value judgments for scrutiny by others. But in addition, to the extent that one person's judgments (such as those in our three axioms) are acceptable to others, controversies over inequality comparisons may be resolved. We have seen that our three axioms are incomplete insofar as they cannot determine the ordinal ranking uniquely. A feasible and desirable direction for future research is to investigate what further axioms could be introduced to complete the axiomatic system or at least to reduce further the zones of ambiguity. It is conceivable that beyond some point the search for new axioms may turn out to be unrewarding. In that case, inequality comparisons will always be subject to arbitary specifications of welfare weights. The selection of suitable weights by whatever reasonable criterion one cares to exercise is a less desirable but possibly more practical alternative than a strictly axiomatic approach. Our research has hopefully made clear that inequality comparisons cannot be made without adopting value judgments, explicit or otherwise, about the desirability of incomes accruing to persons at different positions in the income distribution. Even the Lorenz criterion, which permits us to rank the relative inequality of different distributions in only a fraction of the cases, embodies such judgments. The traditional inequality indices such as those considered in Section 3, to the extent they complete the ordering, embody some value judgments
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Sara Arber, Jay Ginn British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 3. P. 519-539.
This study examines the extent of ethnic disadvantage in private pension scheme arrangements and analyzes variation according to gender and specific ethnic group, using 3 years of the British Family Resources Survey, which provides information on over 97,000 adults aged 20-59, including over 5,700 from ethnic minorities. Both men and women in minority ethnic groups were less likely to have private pension coverage than their white counterparts but the extent of the difference was most marked for Pakistanis and Bangladeshis. Ethnicity interacted with gender, so that blacks showed the least gender inequality in private pension arrangements, reflecting the relatively similar full-time employment rates of black men and women. A minority ethnic disadvantage in private pension coverage, for both men and women, remained after taking account of age, marital and parental status, years of education, employment variables, class and income.
Political ideology and popular beliefs about class and opportunity: evidence from a survey experiment [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Geoffrey Evans British Journal of Sociology. 1997. Vol. 48. No. 3. P. 450-470.
This paper examines popular understanding of class inequalities in opportunity using an experimental approach to assess implicit as well as explicit comprehension. Three competing representations of popular beliefs are compared: a 'class inequality' model, implying widespread belief in class-related inequalities of opportunity; a 'meritocratic' view of achievement, in which emphasis is placed on individual responsibility; and an 'ideological polarization' model, which assumes that beliefs emphasizing class inequality or merit varv with left-right ideology. Predictions derived from these ideas are tested using a national survey with an experimental design, in which respondents are presented with vignettes designed to elicit their beliefs as to how and why people from different class backgrounds obtain middle-class or working-class occupations. As predicted by the class inequality model, there is clear evidence of the impact of tacit assumptions about class structured inequality of opportunity on expectations, judgments of responsibility and explanations of occupational attainment. Even among rightwing respondents, who are more likely to endorse the rhetoric of individual responsibility, there remains an implicit awareness of social class influences on life-chances, suggesting the pervasive presence of these beliefs in popular understanding of social processes.
Опубликовано на портале: 26-11-2003Amartya Sen Econometrica. 1976. Vol. 44. No. 2. P. 219-231.
The primary aim of this paper is to propose a new measure of poverty, which should avoid some of the shortcomings of the measures currently in use. An axiomatic approach is used to derive the measure. The conception of welfare in the axiom set is ordinal. The information requirement for the new measure is quite limited, permitting practical use.
Опубликовано на портале: 02-04-2003Владимир Иванович Ильин Рубеж (альманах социальных исследований). 1996. № 8-9. С. 98-122.
Дается теоретический анализ критериев выделения новых средних слоев в контексте современной России, приводятся данные эмпирического исследования в Республике Коми.
Опубликовано на портале: 06-08-2003Лариса Евгеньевна Петрова Экономическая социология. 2001. Т. 2. № 1. С. 26-42.
В работе исследуется группа новых бедных, под которыми понимается группа людей, которые переживают резкое понижение уровня жизни при сохранении прежнего профессионального статуса. Проверяется гипотеза о влиянии ценностей на стратегии поведения научных работников на материалах эмпирического исследования. Источником данных служит опрос сотрудников научных и научно-производственных учреждений городов Москва, Краснодар, Нижний Новгород и Екатеринбург, проведенный осенью 1998 г. Глубинное личное интервью было посвящено актуальной жизненной ситуации исследуемой группы - трудовая биография, проблемные зоны работы, семьи, самореализации, планы на будущее, характеристика макросреды.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2003Ruslan Yemtsov World Bank Poverty Net. 2002.
This paper analyzes regional data on inequality and poverty in Russia over the period 1994-2000 using published series from the regionally representative Household Budget Survey. The paper finds that the share of inequality in Russia coming from the between-regions component is large (close to a third of the total inequality), growing over time, and accounting for most of the increase in the national inequality over 1994-2000. The paper demonstrates an absence of inter-regional convergence in incomes across Russian regions using various techniques, such as beta, sigma convergence and the transition matrix approach. On the other hand, the paper finds an evidence of convergence in the inequality within regions, which is trended towards an internationally high level. Based on these two findings, the paper projects dynamics of inequality and poverty in Russia over a ten years time horizon. Projections show that if the observed trend is to continue in the future, by 2010 the absolute majority of the Russia’s poor will be concentrated in few permanently impoverished regions, while relatively more affluent regions will become virtually free of poverty. Finally, the paper relates fluctuations in the inequality within regions to a set of factors determining the speed of restructuring at the regional level, classified into four broad categories: endowments and initial conditions, preferences, policies, and shocks; among these factors short run fluctuations of the unemployment rate are revealed as significant and strong correlates of inequality.