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Что такое экономическая социология? Это не "междисциплинарные исследования". Это не "изучение социальных проблем в экономике". Это не проведение опросов населения. Это не маркетинговые исследования. Что же это? (подробнее...)

Статьи

Всего статей в данном разделе : 298

Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
Rod Bond, Peter Saunders British Journal of Sociology. 1999.  Vol. 50. No. 2. P. 217-249. 
Using data from the National Child Development Study, a complex path model is developed predicting the occupational grade achieved by 4,298 employed British males at age 33. Using various measures of class origins, parental support, qualifications, and individual ability and ambition, a linear structural equations model is developed which achieves a good fit to the data. The model demonstrates that individual ability is by far the strongest influence on occupational achievement, that motivation is also important, and that factors like class background and parental support, while significant, are relatively much weaker. It is concluded that occupational selection in Britain appears to take place on meritocratic principles.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
George Kolankiewicz British Journal of Sociology. 1996.  Vol. 47. No. 3. P. 427-442. 
Taking contemporary Poland as a case in point, the emerging processes of class formation attendant on privatization and democratization are examined using traditional concepts of class analysis allied to more recent social capital theory.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
Gordon Marshall, Stephen Roberts, Carole Burgoyne British Journal of Sociology. 1996.  Vol. 47. No. 1. P. 22-44. 
It is commonly argued that the research programme of class analysis is undermined by its appararent neglect of large numbers of economically-inactive adults who do not form part of the analysis, but are affected by class processes, and form distinctive elements within any class structure. This paper disputes the claim that welfare dependents, the retired, and domestic housekeepers show distinctive patterns of socio-political class formation. Nor are the class-related attributes of the supposed underclass so distinct that they require separate treatment in a class analysis. Evidence which supports the orthodox strategy of sampling economically-active men and women is taken from national sample surveys of adults in Britain and the USA.
Опубликовано на портале: 01-02-2003
Michael Burawoy, Erik Olin Wright
We have argued in this paper that the main theoretical ideas of Marxism can be grouped into three broad clusters: a theory of dynamics and destiny of capitalism -- historical materialism; a theory of the contradictory reproduction of capitalism sociological Marxism; and a normative theory of emancipatory alternatives.
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Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004
Leslie McCall American Sociological Review. 2001.  Vol. 66. No. 4. P. 520-541. 
Research on racial inequality has become increasingly specialized, often focusing on a single explanation and subgroup of the population. In a diverse society, a broader comparative framework for interpreting the causes of wage inequality for different racial, ethnic, and gender groups is called for. The effects of a range of different factors on the wages of Latinos, Asians, and blacks, relative to whites and separately for women and men, are examined. New sources of racial wage inequality are also considered. Significant differences are found in the sources of wage inequality across race, ethnicity, and gender. Differences are generally greater between racial and ethnic groups than between men and women. Key findings include a large negative effect of immigration on the relative wages of Latinos and Asians and only a small effect on the relative wages of black women (and no effect on black men). In contrast, the relative wages of blacks remain most affected positively by the presence of manufacturing employment and unions. New economy indicators of high-skill services and flexible employment conditions play only a secondary role in explaining metropolitan racial wage inequality.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
Inge Sieben, Paul M. De Graaf British Journal of Sociology. 2001.  Vol. 52. No. 3. P. 441-467. 
This study presents a comparative sibling analysis. This allows for the testing of 2 major social mobility hypotheses: the modernization hypothesis and the socialist ideology hypothesis. Survey data on brothers in England, Hungary, the Netherlands, Scotland, Spain, and the US is employed, covering a historical period from 1916 until 1990. Results show that the effects of parental social class on educational attainment are smaller in technologically advanced societies, and that the effects of parental social class on occupational status are smaller in social-democratic and communist societies. In addition, the total family impact on occupational status declines with modernization. But overall, it is observed that the family of origin has not lost its importance for its sons' educational attainment and occupational status yet.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-05-2004
Erik Bihagen, Bjorn Hallerod Work, Employment, and Society. 2000.  Vol. 14. No. 2. P. 307-330. 
Class structure and class formation are two crucial aspects of class. The former relates to differences in market positions and the latter concerns social factors such as interaction, mobility and class action. This paper is based on Swedish data covering the period from 1975 to 1995. Analysis reveals a persistent class hierarchy and that there is no trend towards declining class differences regarding market position. The situation is better described as being in a state of non-linear flux. However, one persistent trend is discernible; class explains less and less of the variance in wage income. Looking at class formation there is a decline over time in class-homogeneity. Most Swedes are mobile in the sense that they end up in a class position different from their father's. A growing majority of all marriage is also class mixed. However, although classes generally lack homogeneity, social boundaries still exist, i.e., tendencies for immobility and class homogeneous marriage. In relation to the Фclass-is-dying hypothesis, the results generally indicate the continuing relevance of class, although the view of classes as homogenous social groups is increasingly troublesome over time.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2003
Amartya Sen The New Republic. 2001.  P. 35-40. 
Gender inequality has many distinct and dissimilar faces. In overcoming some of its worst manifestations, especially in mortality rates, the cultivation of women's empowerment and agency, through such means as women's education and gainful employment, has proved very effective. But in dealing with the new form of gender inequality, the injustice relating to natality, there is a need to go beyond the question of the agency of women and to look for a more critical assessment of received values. When anti-female bias in behavior {such as sex-specitic abortion) reflects the hold of traditional masculinist values from which mothers themselves may not be immune, what is needed is not just freedom of action but also freedom of thought — the freedom to question and to scrutinize inherited beliefs and traditional priorities. Informed critical agency is important in combating inequality of every kind, and gender inequality is no exception.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
Floya Anthias British Journal of Sociology. 2001.  Vol. 52. No. 3. P. 367-390. 
Within most approaches to stratification gender and ethnicity are seen to pertain primarily to the symbolic or cultural realms, while class is regarded as pertaining to material inequality. This constructs gender and ethnic positioning as entailing honor, deference, worth, value and differential treatment (sometimes expressed through the notion of status), but the social relations around these are themselves not seen as constitutive of social stratification. This study rethinks social stratification away from the polarity between the material and the symbolic, and argues that material inequality, as a set of outcomes relating to life conditions, life chances and solidary processes, is informed by claims and struggles over resources of different types, undertaken in terms of gender, ethnicity/race and class. This formulation allows for the inclusion of these categorial formations, alongside class, as important elements of social stratification i.e. as determining the allocation of socially valued resources and social places/locations.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002
Roger V. Gould American Journal of Sociology. 2002.  Vol. 107. No. 5. P. 1143-1178. 
This article offers a formal theoretical model of the emergence of hierarchy that bridges the division between individualistic and structuralist accounts of inequality. In the model, actors reproduce status hierarchies by adjusting their own status-conferring gestures according to collective attributions. These collective attributions are just the aggregate of individual gestures, leading to a self-reinforcing status ranking. Winner-take-all hierarchies are discouraged, however, when people prefer reciprocation of their status-conferring actions. The model therefore depicts a status ranking as an equilibrium resulting from individual responses to the trade-off between social influence and the distaste for making unreciprocated gestures. Analysis of the model generates several precise predictions about the patterns that social networks should exhibit at equilibrium. Data on interaction in task groups, friendship ratings in a fraternity, and play in a set of infant quintuplets is used to show that the formal theory makes unusually accurate predictions about network structure.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004
Walter Korpi, Joakim Palme American Sociological Review. 1998.  Vol. 63. No. 5. P. 661-687. 
Debates on how to reduce poverty and inequality have focused on two controversial questions: Should social policies be targeted to low-income groups or be universal? Should benefits be equal for all or earnings-related? Traditional arguments in favor of targeting and flat-rate benefits, focusing on the distribution of the money actually transferred, neglect three policy-relevant considerations: (1) The size of redistributive budgets is not fixed but reflects the structure of welfare state institutions. (2) A trade-off exists between the degree of low-income targeting and the size of redistributive budgets. (3) Outcomes of market-based distribution are often more unequal than those of earnings-related social insurance programs. We argue that social insurance institutions are of central importance for redistributive outcomes. Using new data, our comparative analyses of the effects of different institutional types of welfare states on poverty and inequality indicate that institutional differences lead to unexpected outcomes and generate the paradox of redistribution: The more we target benefits at the poor and the more concerned we are with creating equality via equal public transfers to all, the less likely we are to reduce poverty and inequality.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004
Eric Grodsky, Devah Pager American Sociological Review. 2001.  Vol. 66. No. 4. P. 542-567. 
This study is motivated by the idea that the racial gap in earnings is generated not only by individual differences but also by systematic variation in the occupational structure that attenuates or exacerbates the effects of race. Using data from the 1990 census and the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, a hierarchical linear modeling approach is employed that allows the simultaneous exploration of the mechanisms of income inequality operating both within and between occupations. Among private-sector employees, striking evidence shows that racial disparities increase in both absolute and percentage terms as one moves up the occupational earnings hierarchy. The association between average occupational earnings and within-occupation racial disadvantage reveals an overlooked source of racial earnings inequality which constrains the opportunities available to upwardly mobile black men in the private sector. This association cannot be explained by measured individual characteristics, or by the status, demographic composition, or skill demands of occupations. In the public sector, on the other hand, racial inequality in earnings is not systematically associated with average occupational earnings, and is instead more closely tied to individual human capital and occupational placement. The implications of these results are considered and directions for future research are suggested.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004
Robert M. Blackburn, Bradley Brooks, Jennifer Jarman Work, Employment, and Society. 2001.  Vol. 15. No. 3. P. 511-538. 
This article presents a new approach to measuring the most important dimension of gender segregation the vertical dimension in quantitative survey data. This, in turn, allows for a reassessment of the view that high levels of gender segregation are synonymous with high levels of social inequality. In order to do this, the article also draws upon significant conceptual developments. Segregation as it is commonly understood is named as overall segregation, and is the resultant of two components, horizontal and vertical segregation, representing difference and inequality separately. This provides a clear approach to measurement. The argument is developed with a case study of the British labour force. The pattern of segregation, in terms of its overall level and its components, varies considerably across sections of the labour force. In terms of inequality, the vertical components measured indicate that British women working full-time are more advantaged than we would expect, and that women working in part-time manual occupations, though facing the greatest relative disadvantage in terms of pay, are actually slightly advantaged over men working in manual occupations in terms of social stratification. Although overall segregation has remained relatively unchanged over the five year period from 1991 to 1996, there have been some significant changes to its components within the various sections of the employed British labour force in that time. By looking at the various sections of the labour force, relative to the labour force as a whole, we can achieve a better understanding of how segregation operates with respect to gender inequalities.
Опубликовано на портале: 25-11-2003
Daria Popova, Лилия Николаевна Овчарова Russian Economic Trends. 2001.  Vol. 10. No. 1. P. 7-14. 
One of the main negative trends of the last decade in Russia has been an unprecedented rise in the numbers of the poor. The economic crisis has entailed an almost two-fold drop in average incomes, modernisation of income distribution has led to an unprecedented increase of income inequality, and the Soviet system of social benefits and privileges oriented to supporting the wealthiest groups has remained in place. The result has been a surge in the poverty rate. This article outlines major issues to be addressed in developing a poverty alleviation policy for Russia. They can be broadly summarised as follows: poverty identification and measurement; analysis of causes and determinants of poverty; adequate economic and social measures to reduce the poverty rate in the current socio-economic situation. Only comprehensive and consistent consideration of these issues will allow a strategy of poverty rate reduction to be formulated.
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Опубликовано на портале: 04-03-2003
John H. Goldthorpe Sociology. 1983.  Vol. 17. No. 4. P. 465-476; 477-488 . 
Обсуждается проблематика гендерного неравенства как часть стратификационных исследований. Задача автора - опровергнуть (теретически и эмпирически) ряд тезисов феминистских исследований. Для этого проводится различие между двумя линиями аргументации относительно позиции семьи в системе социальной стратификации - между функционалистской теорией социальной стратификации и европейской традицией исследования социальных классов, анализируются эмпирические данные и трудности, которые возникают при использовании гендерного измерения в стратификационных исследованиях.
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