Всего статей в данном разделе : 45
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Monder Ram, Tahir Abbas, Balihar Sanghera Work, Employment, and Society. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 2. P. 353-372.
Ethnic minority business activity has often been presented as a vehicle for upward mobility for owners and workers alike. Much attention has focused upon the owners themselves. The co-ethnic labour that such employers usually rely upon has often been treated as unproblematic. This paper aims to illuminate the experiences of workers in ethnic minority owned restaurants. In particular, the widely held view that working in a co-ethnic firm serves as an apprenticeship for eventual self-employment is explored. Rather than co-ethnic ties, workers' labour market experiences highlight the importance of the opportunity structure in shaping employment choices. The evidence of the current research suggests that the goal of self-employment was not widely held; and although many workers did move around to acquire better paid work, this was not part of a strategic route to becoming a restaurateur. Some workers did cherish such ambitions, but were inhibited by major obstacles. These included intense competition, high start-up costs, and a lack of know-how. The labour market and social context of the firm often militated against the hazardous proposition of self-employment.
Class structure in a deeply divided society: Class and ethnic inequality in Israel, 1974-1991 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Meir Yaish British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 3. P. 409-439.
Despite the fact that in many societies ethnicity plays an important role in stratification processes, a common view held by students of stratification argues that the role of ascriptive criteria in stratification processes is diminishing, and that the main axis of the modern stratification system is rooted in the division of labor in the marketplace. Despite this, most Israeli sociologists have taken the ethnic and national cleavages to be the main axes of stratification in Israel. This paper utilizes the 1974 and 1991 mobility surveys in Israel to examine changes over time in the association between ethnicity/nationality and class position in the Israeli stratification structure. It also examines the extent to which inequality of opportunity within the Israel class structure is affected by ethnicity/nationality. Here it is found that the ethnic/national cleavage in Israel appears to have played a less important role over time in the allocation of Israeli men to class positions.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Irene Browne American Sociological Review. 1997. Vol. 62. No. 2. P. 236-252.
For the first time in this century, Black women are participating in the labor force at lower rates than are White women. The Black-White gap in female labor force participation is driven by those in the severest need of income-women heading households. I compare three explanations of the Black-White gap in labor force participation among female household heads-lack of human capital, lack of opportunities resulting from industrial restructuring, and disarticulation from mainstream institutions as described by theories of the "underclass." Using a representative national sample from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I find that lower rates of labor force participation among Black women heading households are determined by Black-White differences in human capital as well as by characteristics associated with a breakdown in the processes linking Black women to the labor market. Overall, the largest impediments to labor force participation among women heading households are dropping out of high school, having a child under the age of six in the household, and being a long-term welfare recipient.
How experience and network ties affect the influence of demographic minorities on corporate boards [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002James D. Westphal, Laurie P. Milton Administrative Science Quarterly. 2000. Vol. 45. No. 2. P. 366-398.
This study examines how the influence of directors who are demographic minorities on corporate boards is contingent on the prior experience of board members and the larger socia structural context in which demographic differences are embedded. The effects of minority status are assessed according to functional background, industry background, education, race, and gender for a large sample of corporate outside directors at Fortune/Forbes 500 companies.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-07-2003Jimy M. Sanders, Victor Nee American Sociological Review. 1996. Vol. 61. No. 2. P. 231-249.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Ted Mouw American Sociological Review. 2000. Vol. 65. No. 5. P. 730-753.
The spatial mismatch hypothesis argues that residential segregation and job decentralization combine to adversely affect the employment opportunities of minorities. While employment is increasingly located outside of central cities, residential segregation prevents minorities from moving closer to suburban jobs. Although this hypothesis has intuitive appeal, there is little consensus regarding its empirical validity. This study (1) constructs detailed geographic measures of changes in employment opportunities, (2) estimates a fixed-effects model of changes in the unemployment rate over time, and (3) accounts for spatial correlation in the error term. Neighborhood-level employment data from 1980 and 1990 are used to measure changes in the distance to jobs from census tracts in the Detroit and Chicago metropolitan areas. In both cities, the decentralization of employment and the loss of manufacturing jobs resulted in substantial changes in the spatial distribution of employment. The empirical results indicate that a decline in the spatial proximity to employment is associated with an increase in the unemployment rate for blacks.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Sara Arber, Jay Ginn British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 3. P. 519-539.
This study examines the extent of ethnic disadvantage in private pension scheme arrangements and analyzes variation according to gender and specific ethnic group, using 3 years of the British Family Resources Survey, which provides information on over 97,000 adults aged 20-59, including over 5,700 from ethnic minorities. Both men and women in minority ethnic groups were less likely to have private pension coverage than their white counterparts but the extent of the difference was most marked for Pakistanis and Bangladeshis. Ethnicity interacted with gender, so that blacks showed the least gender inequality in private pension arrangements, reflecting the relatively similar full-time employment rates of black men and women. A minority ethnic disadvantage in private pension coverage, for both men and women, remained after taking account of age, marital and parental status, years of education, employment variables, class and income.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-07-2003Alejandro Portes, Min Zhou American Sociological Review. 1996. Vol. 61. No. 2. P. 219-230.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Alberto Palloni, Douglas S. Massey, Miguel Ceballos American Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 106. No. 5. P. 1262-1298.
This article uses a multistate hazard model to test the network hypothesis of social capital theory. The effects of family network ties on individual migration are estimated while controlling for measured and unmeasured conditions that influence migration risks for all family members. Results suggest that social network effects are robust to the introduction of controls for human capital, common household characteristics, and unobserved conditions. Estimates also confirm the ancillary hypothesis, which states that diffuse social capital distributed among community and household members strongly influences the likelihood of out-migration, thus validating social capital theory in general and the network hypothesis in particular.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Jacqueline M. Hagan American Sociological Review. 1998. Vol. 63. No. 1. P. 55-67.
Most research on social networks and immigrant incorporation focuses on the short-term and positive functions of networks, neglecting changes in networks over time. Author present a dynamic and variable portrayal of networks to demonstrate how they gradually assume different forms and functions for women and for men that differentially affect settlement outcomes, particularly opportunities to become legal. The gendered social relations of neighborhood, work, and voluntary associations interact to produce this outcome. The conclusions suggest that social networks can both strengthen and weaken over time, can change differentially for different segments of the immigrant community, and therefore can have disparate effects on incorporation.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Paul Iganski, Geoff Payne British Journal of Sociology. 1999. Vol. 50. No. 2. P. 195-215.
The consequences of major changes in employment, due to the decline of manufacturing and the growth of the service sector, have not been well-documented, nor theorized, in the sociology of ethnic relations, even in recent studies. By adapting data from the Labour Force Survey and the Census, the gap is addressed with a detailed account of 3 main minority ethnic groups, and a separate analysis of male and female employment. It is demonstrated that, contrary to assumptions that members of the minority ethnic groups suffered most from de-industrialization, they actually did rather well, and in some cases did better than the majority population. These findings are reconceptualized as collective social mobility, as part of a review of a number of conceptual frameworks in the light of the data.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-09-2003Jeffrey W. Lucas American Sociological Review. 2003. Vol. 68. No. 3. P. 464-.
Socially disadvantaged individuals often encounter resistance when they rise to high-status positions. For example, women, according to status characteristics theory, will be disadvantaged relative to men in social interactions, other things being equal. Institutionalizing women as leaders may overcome such disadvantages. Drawing from status characteristics theory and institutional theory, it is predicted that institutionalization of female leadership can reduce the influence gap between women and men by legitimating structures of female leadership. Results of an experiment conducted to test this idea show that, as predicted, male leaders attained higher influence than did female leaders, and leaders appointed on ability attained higher influence than did randomly assigned leaders. Institutionalization, however, reduced the advantage of men such that female leaders appointed on ability when female leadership was institutionalized attained influence as high as male leaders appointed on ability when female leadership was not institutionalized.
Temporal Differentiation in the Occupational Mobility of Immigrant and Native-Born Latina Workers [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Dowell Myers, Cynthia J. Cranford American Sociological Review. 1998. Vol. 63. No. 1. P. 68-93.
We estimate changes over time in the occupational participation of Latina workers. Applying a "double cohort" method for longitudinal analysis with census data, we clarify the effects of economic restructuring and economic assimilation. We investigate multiple temporal effects: immigration cohort, birth cohort, age at migration, duration in the United States, and advancing age. The analysis compares Latinas in southern California who are employed in low-wage factory jobs with Latinas employed in better-paying office jobs. Results indicate sharp temporal differentiation among the Latina workers, even after controlling for human capital. The newest arrivals concentrate in the growing light-manufacturing sector and remain there, to a relative degree, across subsequent decades. Workers who immigrated as young children (referred to as the 1.5 generation) diverge from their parents and tend to be employed in office jobs--a pattern similar to young native-born Latinas. Within cohorts' careers, workers shift out of factory jobs, but there is little net shift into office work. Instead, cohort succession is the dominant factor in workers' adaptation to a changing economic structure. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.
The material and the symbolic in theorizing social stratification: Issues of gender, ethnicity and class [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Floya Anthias British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 3. P. 367-390.
Within most approaches to stratification gender and ethnicity are seen to pertain primarily to the symbolic or cultural realms, while class is regarded as pertaining to material inequality. This constructs gender and ethnic positioning as entailing honor, deference, worth, value and differential treatment (sometimes expressed through the notion of status), but the social relations around these are themselves not seen as constitutive of social stratification. This study rethinks social stratification away from the polarity between the material and the symbolic, and argues that material inequality, as a set of outcomes relating to life conditions, life chances and solidary processes, is informed by claims and struggles over resources of different types, undertaken in terms of gender, ethnicity/race and class. This formulation allows for the inclusion of these categorial formations, alongside class, as important elements of social stratification i.e. as determining the allocation of socially valued resources and social places/locations.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Alejandro Portes, William J. Haller, Luis Eduardo Guarnizo American Sociological Review. 2002. Vol. 67. No. 2. P. 278-298.
The recent literature on immigrant transnationalism points to an alternative form of economic adaptation of foreign minorities in advanced societies that is based on the mobilization of their cross-country social networks. Case studies have noted the phenomenon's potential significance for immigrant integration into receiving countries and for the economic development in countries of origin. Despite their suggestive character, these studies consistently sample on the dependent variable (transnationalism), failing to establish the empirical existence of these activities beyond a few descriptive examples and their possible determinants. These issues are addressed using a survey designed explicitly for this purpose and conducted among selected Latin immigrant groups in the United States. Although immigrant transnationalism has received little attention in the mainstream sociological literature so far, it has the potential of altering the character of the new ethnic communities spawned by contemporary immigration. The empirical existence of transnationalism is examined on the basis of discriminant functions of migrant characteristics, and the relative probabilities of engaging in these kinds of activities is established based on hypotheses drawn from the literature. Implications for the sociology of immigration as well as for broader sociological theories of the economy are discussed. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.