Всего статей в данном разделе : 221
Japan's Shareholder Revolution [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 20-12-2007Ronald Philip Dore CentrePiece Magazine. 2006. Vol. 11. No. 3. P. 22-24.
Over the past decade or so, there has been a fundamental change in what the managers of Japanese companies believe are their key objectives. Ronald Dore traces the country’s conversion to Anglo-Saxon capitalism - and growing concerns about the emergence of a new 'divided society'.
Kapitalismus ohne Arbeit [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 01-02-2007Ulrich Beck Der Spiegel. 1996. No. 20. P. 140-146.
Статья немецкого социолога Ульриха Бека о будущем труда, которое видится ему как "безработный капитализм".
Law and Finance [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-10-2008Rafael La Porta, Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes, Andrei Shleifer, Robert W. Vishny Journal of Political Economy. 1998. Vol. 106. No. 6. P. 1113-1155.
This paper examines legal rules covering protection of corporate shareholders and creditors, the origin of these rules, and the quality of their enforcement in 49 countries. The results show that common-law countries generally have the strongest, and French-civil-law countries the weakest, legal protections of investors, with German- and Scandinavian-civil-law countries located in the middle. We also find that concentration of ownership of shares in the largest public companies is negatively related to investor protections, consistent with the hypothesis that small, diversified shareholders are unlikely to be important in countries that fail to protect their rights.
Опубликовано на портале: 20-11-2008Martin Höpner, John W Cioffi Mitbestimmung. 2005. Vol. 51. No. 8. P. 58-61.
In almost all Western industrialised countries, shareholders and supervisory bodies are now being given greater rights. Company takeovers are becoming easier, minority shareholders are receiving greater protection and transparency provisions are being enhanced. Why is it the Social Democratic parties that are championing these pro-shareholder reforms?
Making Sense of Globalisation [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 20-12-2007Ronald Philip Dore CEP Occasional Papers. 2001. No. 16.
This paper, originally written as an encyclopaedia survey, considers as globalisation all the consequences of the long-term cheapening of, and expansion of the technical possibilities of - transport and communication; a process more or less uninterrupted since the improvements of navigation in the fifteenth century, though recently much accelerated. It considers five main areas of contemporary discussion: 1. How integrated global markets really are. (Not as much as one might think.) 2. How far globalisation erodes the sovereignty of nation-states, reducing their autonomy in making economic policy. (More for some than for others.) 3. The consequences of globalisation for the distribution of income among the world's population; both among nations (equalising for good learners, not for others) and within nations (generally unequalising). 4. The problematic growth of a transnational ‘world society’ (slow, probably unstoppable, but still a long way from creating a ‘world class system’) and international governance (hesitant and more likely to be hegemonic than conciliar). 5. The interaction of national economic, political, military and cultural power, and the possibility and desirability of retaining distinctive national institutions, embodying distinctive national value preferences and cultures. (in the end, as much a matter of neo-liberalism vs. social democracy as of the persistence of Germanness or Japaneseness).
Managing Competences in Entrepreneurial Technology Firms: A comparative institutional analysis of Germany, Sweden and the UK [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 24-03-2008Richard Whitley, Steven Casper Research Policy. 2004. Vol. 33. P. 89-106.
Innovating firms in new industries face a number of technological and market risks, especially appropriability and competence destruction. However, the relative significance of these varies between different sub-sectors, and so do managerial ways of dealing with them. These in turn are influenced by institutional frameworks, particularly those governing skill formation systems and labour markets. Consequently, the relative success of firms in fields with different appropriability and competence destruction risks is likely to vary between countries with contrasting patterns of labour market organisation. In the biotechnology and computer software industries, there are major differences in the dominant risks faced by innovating firms such that we would expect their relative success to differ between Germany, Sweden and the UK. While the UK and, to a limited extent, Sweden, have developed institutions similar to those found in the US that help govern “radically innovative” firm competences, Germany has invested in institutional frameworks associated with “competency enhancing” human resource practices that give its firms an advantage in more generic technologies in which organisational complexity is higher.While the distribution of public companies across sub-sectors broadly follows these expectations, Sweden has developed considerable strength in middleware software. This results from changing property rights and personnel policies at Ericsson.
Market, culture and authority: A comparative analysis of management and organization in the Far East. [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 18-12-2009Nicole Woolsey Biggart, Gary G. Hamilton American Journal of Sociology. 1998. Vol. 94. P. 52-94.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Manuel Castells British Journal of Sociology. . Vol. 51. No. 1. P. 5-24.
Some elements for a grounded theory of the network society are outlined. The network society is the social structure characteristic of the Information Age, as tentatively identified by empirical, cross-cultural investigation. It permeates most societies in the world, in various cultural and institutional manifestations, as the industrial society characterized the social structure both capitalism and statism for most of the twentieth century. Social structures are organized around relationships of production/consumption, power, and experience, whose spatio-temporal configurations constitute cultures. They are enacted, reproduced, and ultimately transformed by social actors, rooted in the social structure, yet freely engaging in conflictive social practices, with uupredictable outcomes.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-12-2009Gary G. Hamilton, Cheng-shu Kao International Sociology. 1987. Vol. 2. No. 3. P. 289-300 .
This essay assesses the usefulness of Max Weber's sociology, particularly his writings on China, for the analysis of East Asian industrialisation. Many scholars writing about modern Asia criticise Weber's views on the relation between Confucian values and the development of capitalism. This essay suggests that many of these critics misinterpret Weber's writing on China Acknowledging that Weber made errors in interpreting China, the authors, nonetheless, argue that Weber's perspective is most valuable in analysing Asian economic development because of the institutional approach he developed Weber's institutional approach is outlined and briefly applied in a comparison of Japanese and Chinese industrialisation.
National Institutions and High Tech Industries: A Varieties of Capitalism Perspective on the Failure of Germany’s “Neuer Markt” [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 17-11-2008Sigurt Vitols, Lutz Engelhardt WZB Discussion Paper. 2005. No. 2005-03.
One of the more prominent recent failures in institutional innovation in Germany was the Neuer Markt (1997-2003), a special segment of the Frankfurt stock exchange designed for high-growth companies. Based in part on insights from the law and economics approach to agency theory, which emphasizes transparency in financial reporting and shareholder rights, the Neuer Markt was an attempt to promote high-tech sectors through increasing the supply of risk capital in Germany. Proponents of the agency approach have suggested that the Neuer Markt failed because reporting requirements and shareholder protection were still inadequate, and have argued for even stricter financial regulation. This paper offers an alternative explanation for the failure of the Neuer Markt based on the Varieties of Capitalism (VOC) approach. This explanation focuses on the complementarities between financial markets and labor markets. Successful entrepreneurial companies require both capital and experienced managers and scientists willing to take higher risks in search of higher returns. Although the supply of risk-friendly capital increased briefly in the late 1990s in Germany, labor markets did not fundamentally change. In particular, mobility in the market for mid-career scientists and managers remains quite low, making it difficult for startups to attract the experienced knowledge workers they need to succeed.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-11-2007Sigurt Vitols Competition and Change. 2004. Vol. 8. No. 4. P. 357-374.
In comparative political economy it has become commonplace to distinguish between two types of corporate governance systems. In shareholder systems, influence over company management is concentrated with institutional investors holding small percentages of companies' shares. In stakeholder systems, influence is shared between large shareholders, employees, the community and suppliers and customers. This paper contributes to the literature addressing recent changes in the German variant of the stake-holder system by proposing a few new concepts. On the level of institutions, it is argued that the stakeholder system is not being replaced by a shareholder system in Germany. Rather, an augmented stakeholder system is emerging through the inclusion of institutional investors in the old stakeholder coalition of interests. On the level of practice, it is argued that negotiated shareholder value is being adopted in Germany. This German variant of shareholder value is distinct from Anglo-American practice because major changes implementing shareholder value must be negotiated within the augmented stakeholder coalition. As a result, performance incentives for employees tend to be less strong than is the case in the USA and UK.
Опубликовано на портале: 25-03-2008Robert Boyer Socio-Economic Review. 2004. Vol. 2. No. 1. P. 1-32.
Whereas the American case may hint that product and labour market deregulation, venture capital and NASDAQ are necessary for the success of a technological led growth, the international comparison suggests the coexistence of at least three successful configurations. Deregulated economies explore a science pushed innovation, along with external labour flexibility, significant inequality in terms of competences. But social democratic countries develop a cooperative approach to the knowledge based economy: rather homogenous educational level, life long learning, negotiation by social partners of the consequence of innovation, collectively organized labour mobility. There is a third configuration for some catching-up economies that use information technology as a method for leapfrogging: labour markets remain largely institutionalised and regulated, without exerting adverse impact upon macroeconomic performance.
New Thinking About Capitalism [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 30-01-2007Fred L. Block Dollars & Sense. 1999. No. 226.
Discusses how the thinking regarding capitalism has changed. Karl Marx's theory regarding the system; New Left radicals' sources of inspiration; Varieties of capitalism.
Опубликовано на портале: 25-05-2009Torben Iversen, John D. Stephens Comparative Political Studies. 2008. Vol. 41. No. 4-5. P. 600-637.
The authors propose a synthesis of power resources theory and welfare production regime theory to explain differences in human capital formation across advanced democracies. Emphasizing the mutually reinforcing relationships between social insurance, skill formation, and spending on public education, they distinguish three distinct worlds of human capital formation: one characterized by redistribution and heavy investment in public education and industry-specific and occupation-specific vocational skills; one characterized by high social insurance and vocational training in firm-specific and industry-specific skills but less spending on public education; and one characterized by heavy private investment in general skills but modest spending on public education and redistribution. They trace the three worlds to historical differences in the organization of capitalism, electoral institutions, and partisan politics, emphasizing the distinct character of political coalition formation underpinning each of the three models. They also discuss the implications for inequality and labor market stratification across time and space.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-12-2009Gary G. Hamilton British Journal of Sociology. 1990. Vol. 41. No. 1. P. 77-104 .
Authority relations identified by the terms patriarchy, patrimonialism, and filial piety represent very different complexes of action in imperial China and Western Europe. Two sets of comparisons (developmental and configurational) demonstrate these differences in the institutional patterning of authority between China and Europe. The author argues, on the one hand, that in Western society legitimate domination is seen as the intentional, directional, and consequential acts of individuals acting within the boundaries of their jurisdictions. In China, on the other hand, it is seen as an aspect of specific sets of social roles, and hence as impersonal, non-intentional, and harmony-seeking. Some of the implications of these differences for social institutions are explored.