Всего статей в данном разделе : 102
Опубликовано на портале: 07-07-2004А.С. Панарин Общественные науки и современность. 1999. № 4. С. 146-157.
Статья является косвенным ответом на выступление А.Янова “От “патриотизма” к национальному самоуничтожению” (ОНС, 1998, № 6). В ней подчеркивается, что мессианские претензии свойственны прежде всего США, где сочетаются принципы либерализма и имперский пафос, демократизм и теократия. В этих условиях одностороннее разоружение российской политической элиты перед США привело только к усилению имперских претензий последних. Постулат однополярного мира предполагает отсутствие крупных суверенных держав; глобализация означает девальвацию населения мировой периферии; вестернизация посредством захвата средств массовой информации ведет к разрушению незападных культур изнутри; либерализм и рыночные отношения в сфере культуры чреваты победой контргуманизма и контрпросвещения. Популярные в России “националистические” идеи, противостоящие этому наступлению глобализаторов (идея Великого Востока, идея угнетенного Юга, “индоевропейская” идея) должны противостоять претензиям США на мировое господство, защите идеи социальной цивилизации в борьбе против идеи экономической цивилизации. Европейская идея должна быть переосмыслена в гуманистическом духе, освобождена от компрадорского, пораженческого контекста.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Veronika Tacke British Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 52. No. 2. P. 293-312.
The BSE problem as an example of the globalization of risk is examined. In order to determine whether the globalization of risk is a social construction depending on the context, the particular role of organizations is emphasized. An empirical comparison is made of the BSE-related risk-constructions of 5 business associations in the German meat industry sector. Results show that the associations construct the risk in close relation to their horizons of globalization, thereby reflecting provision problems, which the companies they are representing face. While the main organizational domains in the sector tried to cope with the risk problem by different means of local market closure, one association, founded in reaction to the BSE problem, took over a reflexive role with regard to the emerging risk communication on BSE in Germany.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Brian Goesling American Sociological Review. 2001. Vol. 66. No. 5. P. 745-761.
Fresh data sources on cross-national income are examined to document recent changes in the composition of world income inequality within and between nations. New evidence shows that during the 1980s and 1990s the composition of world income inequality experienced a fundamental change, characterized by the diminishing significance of between-nation income differences and the growing prominence of within-nation inequalities. Two competing trends account for this change: (1) steady growth in the average level of income inequality within nations, and (2) a decline in income inequality between nations. These recent trends signify a reversal in one of the major legacies of the Industrial Revolution-the internationalization of world income inequality across national borders. The findings raise important questions for future studies of cross-national inequality and development.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Neil Fligstein, Alec S. Sweet American Journal of Sociology. 2002. Vol. 107. No. 5. P. 1206-1243.
As institutions and governance structures develop in modern markets, they tend to "feed back" onto economic activity. Through such feedback loops, market and political arenas can develop symbiotically into relatively coherent "fields" that gradually embed actors' orientations and activities. Using these insights, this article develops and tests a theory of European integration focusing on the case of the European Community, the first pillar of the European Union. Traders, organized interests, courts, and the EC's policy-making organs, over time, have produced a self-sustaining causal system that has driven the construction of the European market and polity. The generality of this explanation to a sociology of markets and polity-building projects is discussed in the conclusion.
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2003Jeffrey Kentor, Terry Boswell American Sociological Review. 2003. Vol. 68. No. 2. P. 301-313.
Scholars have long debated the impact of foreign investment on the economies of less developed countries. Many argue that foreign investment is beneficial for the host economy; others argue, just as forcefully, that dependence on foreign capital is detrimental. This study offers a new conceptualization of foreign capital dependence that may resolve this debate: foreign investment concentration, which is the proportion of a host country's foreign direct investment stocks owned by the single largest investing country. The theory is that high investment concentration limits the autonomy of state and business elites to act in the long-term interests of domestic growth. In a series of cross-national panel regression models of 39 less developed countries estimated at five-year intervals from 1970 to 1995, the often cited negative effects of foreign capital penetration on growth in GNP per capita are dramatically reduced or entirely replaced when investment concentration, and the related concepts of export commodity and trade partner concentrations, are included in the analyses. Foreign investment concentration has a significant, long-term negative effect on growth that is strongest over the initial five-year period and decreases over the next 15 years. A similar effect is also found for the 1990-1997 period. This structural aspect of capital dependence has a greater impact on development than does the overall level of foreign capital penetration.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-12-2002Christel Lane British Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 51. No. 2. P. 207-234.
A small number of German multinational corporations are examined in their domestic and international context. More particularly, the work focuses on whether and how their emergent globalization activities affect the reproduction or erosion of the three institutional complexes which shape the factors of production: the financial system; the innovation system; and the industrial relations system. The paper concludes that a new type of transformation - hybridization - is emerging. It is regarded as a consequence of German companies' growing integration into a global economic system.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Arthur S. Alderson, Francois Nielsen American Sociological Review. 1999. Vol. 64. No. 4. P. 606-616.
We reconsider the role of foreign investment in income inequality in light of recent critiques that question the results of quantitative cross-national research on foreign capital penetration. We analyze an unbalanced cross-national data set in which countries contribute different numbers of observations, with a maximum of 88 countries and 488 observations, dated from 1967 to 1994. Random-effects regression models that control for unmeasured country heterogeneity are used to investigate effects of foreign capital penetration on inequality (measured as the Gini coefficient) against the background of an internal-developmental model of inequality. We adapt Firebaugh's (1992, 1996) critique of the literature on the effect of foreign investment on economic growth to the study of income inequality and find that the stock of foreign direct investment has an effect on inequality that is independent of the mechanisms identified by Firebaugh. We explore Tsai's (1995) claim that the effect of foreign capital penetration is spurious and find that foreign stock has a significant positive effect on inequality net of region-specific differences. An alternative interpretation of the findings of the foreign investment/inequality literature is discussed in light of the discovery of an inverted-U shaped relationship between income inequality and foreign investment stock per capita. We conclude that thinking on the relationship between income inequality and investment dependence should be revised in light of an investment-development path relating the inflow and outflow of foreign capital to economic development.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-09-2003Jason Beckfield American Sociological Review. 2003. Vol. 68. No. 3. P. 401-424.
Recent research reveals strong effects of involvement in international organizations on state policies, but much of this research downplays inequality in world political participation, and there is only a limited understanding of what explains world-polity ties. Using data on memberships in intergovernmental and international nongovernmental organizations (IGOs and INGOs) for 1960 through 2000, this study analyses inequality in the world polity. IGO ties are fairly evenly distributed, but the level of inequality in INGO ties is as high as the level of world income inequality. Since I960, inequality in ties to IGOs decreased sharply, but inequality in ties to INGOs remained more stable. A conflict-centered model of the world polity is developed here that explains world political participation as a function of material and symbolic conflict. Rich, core, Western states and societies have significantly more ties to the world polity than do others. Powerful states dominate IGOs less now than they did in 1960, but rich, core, Western societies have grown more dominant in the INGO field.
Is Globalization Civilizing, Destructive or Feeble? A Critique of Five Key Debates in the Social-Science Literature [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2009Mauro F. Guillén Annual Review of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 27. P. 235-260.
The sociological, economic, political, and anthropological literatures are devoting increasing attention to globalization. This chapter discusses the various connotations of the term and puts it in historical perspective. Existing theoretical and empirical research on globalization is organized around five key issues or questions: Is it really happening? Does it produce convergence? Does it undermine the authority of nation-states? Is globality different from modernity? Is a global culture in the making? A plea is made for a comparative sociology of globalization that is sensitive to local variations and to how agency, interest, and resistance mediate in the relationship between globalization causes and outcomes.
IV Международный социальный конгресс [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 27-03-2006Дина Кабдуллиновна Танатова Социологические исследования. 2005. № 5. С. 145-146.
Представлена информация по итогам IV Международного социального конгресса: «Социальные процессы и социальные отношения в современной России», проходившего в ноябре 2004 г. в Российском государственном социальном университете. В его работе участвовали исследователи и преподаватели РГСУ, обществоведы из многих вузов и исследовательских центров России и ближнего зарубежья, представители законодательной и исполнительной власти — Совета Федерации РФ, Государственной Думы РФ, аппарата Правительства РФ, руководители ряда научных и образовательных учреждений, представители духовенства. Доклады и выступления на секциях были посвящены широкому кругу вопросов изменений в социальной сфере российского общества. Обсуждались такие темы, как сотрудничество науки, образования и бизнеса, роль социальной работы в гражданском обществе, задачи социального управления в контексте административной, пенсионной и жилищно-коммунальной реформ, охрана труда и окружающей среды, затрагивались социально-гуманитарные, психологические, медицинские, экономические и правовые вопросы развития российского общества.
Making Sense of Globalisation [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 20-12-2007Ronald Philip Dore CEP Occasional Papers. 2001. No. 16.
This paper, originally written as an encyclopaedia survey, considers as globalisation all the consequences of the long-term cheapening of, and expansion of the technical possibilities of - transport and communication; a process more or less uninterrupted since the improvements of navigation in the fifteenth century, though recently much accelerated. It considers five main areas of contemporary discussion: 1. How integrated global markets really are. (Not as much as one might think.) 2. How far globalisation erodes the sovereignty of nation-states, reducing their autonomy in making economic policy. (More for some than for others.) 3. The consequences of globalisation for the distribution of income among the world's population; both among nations (equalising for good learners, not for others) and within nations (generally unequalising). 4. The problematic growth of a transnational ‘world society’ (slow, probably unstoppable, but still a long way from creating a ‘world class system’) and international governance (hesitant and more likely to be hegemonic than conciliar). 5. The interaction of national economic, political, military and cultural power, and the possibility and desirability of retaining distinctive national institutions, embodying distinctive national value preferences and cultures. (in the end, as much a matter of neo-liberalism vs. social democracy as of the persistence of Germanness or Japaneseness).
Опубликовано на портале: 11-02-2007Игорь Георгиевич Ушкалов, Ирина Александровна Малаха Социологические исследования. 2000. № 3. С. 110-117.
Автор видит причины эмиграции в противоречиях между уровнем развития личности, ее потребностями, возможностями и условиями их удовлетворения. Разрешить это противоречие представляется возможным лишь перешагнув государственные границы. При этом специфика сочетания причин и целей имеет важное значение как на стадии формирования мотивов (потенциальной) мобильности, так и во всей совокупности конкретных действий потенциальных мигрантов. В целом, среди этих причин преобладают не столько внешние по отношению к личности, сколько внутренние - стремление к реализации имеющихся у нее потребностей в развитии.
The Global Apparel Value Chain: What Prospects for Upgrading by Developing Countries? United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), Sectoral Studies Series. [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 19-11-2007Gary Gereffi, Olga Memodovic
The paper uses the global value chain framework to explain the transformations in production, trade and corporate strategies that altered the apparel industry over the past decades and changed the conditions for innovation and learning in the industry. The apparel industry is identified as a buyer-driven value chain that contains three types of lead firms: retailers, marketers and branded manufacturers. With the globalization of apparel production, competition between the leading firms in the industry has intensified as each type of lead firm has developed extensive global sourcing capabilities. While “de-verticalizing” out of production, these firms are fortifying their activities in the high value-added design and marketing segments of the apparel chain, leading to a blurring of the boundaries between them and a realignment of interests within the chain. Innovation in the global apparel value chain is primarily associated with the shift from assembly to full-package production. Full-package production changes fundamentally the relationship between buyer and supplier giving more autonomy to the supplying firm and creating more possibilities for innovation and learning. The paper distinguishes between three new models of competition in the North American market namely the East Asian, Mexican and Caribbean Basin model. Each model presents different perspectives and challenges for industrial innovation and learning.
Опубликовано на портале: 16-11-2007Gary Gereffi, John Humphrey, Timothy Sturgeon Review of International Political Economy. 2005. Vol. 12. No. 1. P. 78-104 .
This article builds a theoretical framework to help explain governance patterns in global value chains. It draws on three streams of literature – transaction costs economics, production networks, and technological capability and firm-level learning – to identify three variables that play a large role in determining how global value chains are governed and change. These are: (1) the complexity of transactions, (2) the ability to codify transactions, and (3) the capabilities in the supply-base. The theory generates five types of global value chain governance – hierarchy, captive, relational, modular, and market – which range from high to low levels of explicit coordination and power asymmetry. The article highlights the dynamic and overlapping nature of global value chain governance through four brief industry case studies: bicycles, apparel, horticulture and electronics.
The political economy of finance [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Marco Pagano, Paolo Volpin Oxford Review of Economic Policy. 2001. Vol. 17. No. 4. P. 502-519.
The regulations that shape the design and operations of corporations and credit and securities markets differ vastly from country to country. In addition, similar regulations are often unequally enforced in different countries. Economists still have an imperfect understanding of why these international differences exist and of whether they tend to persist over time. However, a recent strand of research has shown that some progress on these issues can be made using the approach of the new political economy, which models regulations and its enforcement as the result of the balance of power between social and economic constituencies. This paper offers a first assessment of the results and potential of this approach in three fields: corporate finance, banking, and securities markets.