Всего статей в данном разделе : 264
Perceptions of Patients by Emergency Room Staff: Substance-Abusers versus Non-Substance-Abusers [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-03-2007Lois Biener Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1983. Vol. 24. No. 3. P. 264-275.
Studies suggest that health care providers' evaluation of patients is related to aspects of the presenting problem, i.e., its seriousness, curability, and rarity; the extent to which the problem was self-caused; and to aspects of the patients, i.e., their age, social distance from providers and cooperativeness. Analysis of 220 emergency room staff members' perceptions of 14 hypothetical patients showed that with the exception of rarity of problem and social distance, the tested factors were significantly related to ratings of rewardingness of patient encounters. Results indicated that predictors of reward derived from substance-abusing and non-substance-abusing patients were different. While seriousness of illness was the primary predictor with non-substance-abusers, perceived cooperativeness was primary with substance-abusers. Predictors of rewarding patient encounters also differed according to staff level. Implications of these differences for emergency treatment of substance-abusers is discussed.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-03-2007Mary Klein Buller, David B. Buller Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1987. Vol. 28. No. 4. P. 375-388.
Research has linked the communication styles of physicians to patients' satisfaction with health care. Recently Ben-Sira (1976, 1980) offered a social interaction model to explain this relationship; this model, however, focused on a single, narrow style of communicating and overlooked the broader spectrum of styles. This survey assessed two general communication styles: affiliation and control. It also examined eight social characteristics of medical interviews as possible mediators of the impact of the physician's communication style on the patient's satisfaction. Patients' evaluations of the physician's communication were associated strongly with patients' evaluations of medical care, suggesting that competence in communication may be a facet of medical competence. Affiliative styles were related positively to patients' satisfaction, whereas dominant/active styles had a negative relationship with satisfaction. Severity of the illness, physician's age, physician's specialty, and the number of prior visits affected the importance of the physician's communication in the patient's evaluations of care.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-03-2007Catherine Ross, John Mirowsky, Raymond S. Duff Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1982. Vol. 23. No. 4. P. 317-329.
Authors developed and tested a model of client satisfaction with medical care in which sociodemographic characteristics of the physician affect client satisfaction under conditions of unmet expectations and a lack of choice. They hypothesized that in small fee-for-service practices such as solo practice, where the client chooses his or her physician, status characteristics of the doctor would be unrelated to client satisfaction. Conversely, in large prepaid group practices where the client is assigned a physician, nonnormative physician status characteristics would create lower client satisfaction. Because expectations are based on statistical norms, it was hypothesized that clients in large prepaid multispecialty groups would be most satisfied with physicians who fit the norm-middle-aged white males from higher status Protestant or Jewish backgrounds. In a sample of pediatricians and their clients, authors found their hypotheses to be strongly supported, with one modification-the relationship between client satisfaction and the physician's socioeconomic background is parabolic. Furthermore, the negative effect of nonnormative physician religious status on client satisfaction in large prepaid groups is offset by the client-physician match and by experience with the physician.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-03-2007Marie R. Haug, Bebe Levin Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1981. Vol. 22. No. 3. P. 212-229.
Traditionally, the sociological concept of the relationship between practitioner and patient has been the sick role, in which the physician as practitioner is in charge, and the patient is obligated to cooperate with the physician's prescribed regimen. More recently, this power relationship has been redefined by some from a consumerist perspective, in which physician and patient bargain over the terms of the relationship. Although each brings different resources to the encounter, neither participant is automatically in charge. Data from a sample of 466 members of the public and 86 physicians are used to assess the extent of reported public attitudes and behaviors that challenge the physician's traditional power, as well as physicians' reported response to such attitudes and events, as evidence of the public's propensity to a consumerist relationship and physicians' willingness to accept it. Among both the public and physicians, substantial minorities express beliefs and report actions congruent with this consumerist perspective. However, different demographic and health belief variables emerge in the two groups as explanatory factors. Doctor-patient power relationships are seen to depend on characteristics of the actors as well as on the illness situation.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-03-2007Alisa Lincoln Sociology of Health and Illness. 2006. Vol. 28. No. 1. P. 54-75.
The influence of social factors on involuntary hospitalisation has been an important and controversial area of sociological focus for many years. Traditionally, social control theory has been used to understand disproportionate rates of involuntary hospitalisation among marginalised and powerless groups. However, dramatic changes in the social context of mental healthcare have necessitated a re-examination of the role of social factors in involuntary hospitalisation. In this study 287 psychiatric emergency room visits were examined in order to test hypotheses for understanding social influences on disposition. Little support for the traditional social control hypothesis was found. People from marginalised groups were not disproportionately involuntarily hospitalised, but instead were disproportionately treated and released from the hospital as people's social resources were used to access care rather than to prevent hospitalisation. This study highlights the importance of the historical relevance of our theoretical understanding of the relationship between social factors and involuntary commitment.
Psychological correlates of sleep-wake pattern // Psychometric Methodology. R. Steyer, К. F. Wender, &. K. F.Widaman (Eds.). - Stuttgart and New York: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1993. - P. 415-420 [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 14-03-2011Юрий Михайлович Плюснин, Аркадий Александрович Путилов
The 40-items of sleep-wake pattern (SWP) questionnaire were selected among the short statements of a former 200 items list using statistical procedures (Putilov, 1990). The analysis of the multivariate structure of the questionnaire revealed 3 scales and 2 subscales which can be labelled as levels of morning (M) and evening wakefulness (E), quality of sleep (S), capacities to be awake (w) and to fall asleep at any time (f). High positive scores indicate lateness in the morning or evening on М- and E-scales, good sleep on S-scale and high capacities to change time of sleep or wakefulness on f- and w-subscales. The age- and sexrelated variability of the questionnaire scores was studied in a town population (2000 males and 2126 females aged 9 to 79 years). All scale and subscale scores are near zero in the thirties, higher in younger and lower in older age, and in all age groups females show lower adaptability of sleep-wake cycle (higher М- and lower E-, S- w-, /-scores).
"Listen to My Madness": Understanding the Experiences of People with Serious Mental Illness [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 04-03-2007Helen Lester, Jonathan Q. Tritter Sociology of Health and Illness. 2005. Vol. 27. No. 5. P. 649-669.
This article explores the salience of disability theory for understanding the experiences of people with serious mental illness. Drawing on data from a focus group study, authors suggest that users experience both impairment (as embodied irrationality) which can, in itself, be oppressive, and also have to manage their lives within a largely disabling society. They outline some of the strategies adopted by users to manage their situation and ensure they access and receive health services, and illustrate how these are a result of the complex relationship between disability and impairment. It is suggested that using a framework of the social model of disability provides a useful way of understanding and making sense of the experience of users with serious mental illness.
"The Illness is Part of the Person": Discourses of Blame, Individual Responsibility and Individuation at a Centre for Spiritual Healing in the North of England [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-03-2007Stuart McClean Sociology of Health and Illness. 2005. Vol. 27. No. 5. P. 628-648.
While the growth in usage and practice of varying forms of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) continues apace, social science has increasingly turned to CAM's often individualistic approach to health and illness. CAM has been perceived as both partly a cause of and a response to the well-documented ideology in modern healthcare of "individual responsibility for health". This occasionally manifests in a 'victim-blaming' ideology amongst both orthodox and CAM practitioners alike. These issues emerged as key themes in an ethnographic study of a Centre for spiritual healing in the North of England. By drawing upon a range of qualitative data gained through the researcher's participation at this healing centre, author argues that the healers' focus on individual responsibility for health is not so much a part of the current socio-political health ideology of "victim-blaming", rather, it is illustrative of an important contemporary social phenomenon: the movement towards the subjectification and personalisation of public life.
Опубликовано на портале: 15-09-2007Елена Ростиславовна Ярская-Смирнова, О. Григорьева Журнал социологии и социальной антропологии. 2006. Т. 9. № 1. С. 151-170.
Статья посвящена анализу способов идентификации народных целителей в условиях современного российского провинциального города и в контексте мировых процессов интеграции медицинских систем. В современных поликультурных обществах данные процессы востребованы плюрализацией жизненных стилей, усложнением спроса и потребления в поле медицинских услуг, различные агенты которого обладают неравным статусом и степенью легитимности. Исходя из данных контент-анализа научно-популярных журналов и качественных интервью, авторы обсуждают противоречивость дискурсивного пространства суждений о народной медицине, приводят комплекс элементов самоидентификации народных целителей, показывая амбивалентность их статуса. Аргументируется прикладное значение этномедицинских исследований в антропологической перспективе.
Returning to the Doctor: The Effect of Client Characteristics, Type of Practice, and Experiences with Care [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-03-2007Catherine Ross, Raymond S. Duff Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1982. Vol. 23. No. 2. P. 119-131.
Although a number of policy-makers have suggested that previous experiences with medical care affect subsequent use of physician services, few researchers have examined the issue empirically. Authors divide the determinants of revisiting the doctor in pediatric practice into three categories: client characteristics, organizational characteristics, and characteristics of the doctor-client interaction; and we develop a causal model. Although race, income, and education have no direct effects on the frequency of returning to the doctor, they have indirect effects through the organization of health care and experiences within the health care system. Clients who are poorly educated tend to have consistently negative experiences with the health care delivery system. These experiences affect subsequent use of services. Positive experiences with the interpersonal, psychosocial aspects of the doctor-client interaction increase a client's proclivity to return to the doctor, while negative doctor-client interactions decrease the probability of returning to the doctor.
Sheila M. Rothman. Living in the Shadow of Death: Tuberculosis and the Social Experience of Illness in American History. N. Y.: Basic Books, 1994. 319 p. ISBN 0-460-03002-5. [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2010Д Михель Журнал исследований социальной политики. 2009. Т. 7. № 3. С. 422-425.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-03-2007Larry Nuttbrock Research on Aging. 1986. Vol. 8. No. 3. P. 368-387.
This study examines sick role identification and sick role retention as interrelated aspects of socialization to a chronic sick role. Focusing on physically impaired older people (55-85) and adopting an interactionist view, sick role socialization is seen in terms of both conformity (mirroring the role casting of others) and improvisation (portraying sickness in pursuit of social support, legitimated dependency, and relief from social strain). Both models are generally supported by the data.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-03-2007William Cockerham, Guenther Lueschen, Gerhard Kunz, Joe L. Spaeth Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1986. Vol. 27. No. 1. P. 1-14.
Data from the 1984 Illinois Comparative Health Survey are used to examine whether the poor have adopted a consumer orientation toward professional health services in view of the reduction of financial barriers and clear signs of increased physician utilization. It was found, however, that lower-status persons stand as more or less passive recipients of such services, with a significantly greater tendency to invest responsibility for their own physical health in the health-care delivery system itself. Yet there was a general lack of difference with respect to health lifestyles involving food habits, emphasis on appearance, sports and exercise, smoking, and alcohol use. A culture-of-medicine thesis was found to provide a stronger explanation of this situation than a culture-of-poverty perspective. Medicine and the mass media have promoted the practice of a healthy lifestyle, but have not encouraged consumerism in the physician-patient relationship. Consequently, it appears that where social institutions provide positive sanctions, self-management and consumerism seems to grow for the poor; but where negative sanctions exist, consumerism does not seem to flourish.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-03-2007Joan R. Bloom, Jeffrey C. Alexander Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1982. Vol. 23. No. 1. P. 84-95.
Nursing teams are conceptualized as coordination mechanisms that respond to task interdependence within the hospital unit. The form of coordination is predicted to result from organizational decision makers' conceptions of the work to be performed as well as the more objective characteristics of the work. The effects of these technological variables on coordination are mediated by the size of the unit and the degree of professionalism exhibited by the nursing staff. A path model is constructed and tested using a sample of 146 patient care units from a national sample of 17 hospitals. In general, the results are supportive of the model: both conceptions of a task and task predictability (or known technology) appear to affect coordination through other structural characteristics of the unit. On larger units the nursing team provides a hierarchical control mechanism, whereas teaming in units characterized by greater staff professionalism provide a means of lateral coordination as well as hierarchical control.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-03-2007Margaret K. Nelson Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1982. Vol. 24. No. 4. P. 339-352.
This paper reexamines the impact of preparation for childbirth on birth-related attitudes and events. Data were collected from approximately 300 obstetric patients before and immediately following childbirth. These data are used to demonstrate that working class and middle class women (in this study, defined on the basis of highest level of education) who do not attend childbirth classes have different attitudes toward, and experiences during, childbirth. The data also demonstrate that the impact of childbirth education is much greater among working class women than it is among middle class women. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.