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В разделе собрана информация о статьях по экономике, социологии и менеджменту. Во многих случаях приводятся полные тексты статей. (подробнее...)

Статьи

Всего статей в данном разделе : 986

Опубликовано на портале: 12-12-2005
Елена Злобина Социологические исследования. 1999.  № 10. С. 53-63. 
Автор ставит вопрос о значении обратной связи для успешной управленческой деятельности, о важности информирования управленцев о несоответствии проводимой политики ожиданиям людей. В основу его исследования положены, с одной стороны, данные опросов госслужащих, а с другой – данные всеукраинских опросов весны 1997 г., проведенных Институтом социологии НАН Украины совместно со службой СОЦИС. Сравниваются результаты этих двух опросов по таким позициям, как ожидания изменений в обществе, оценка жизненных приоритетов, факторы, разъединяющие людей в украинском обществе, включенность людей в процесс социальных преобразований, оценка новых возможностей жизнедеятельности, долгосрочный прогноз продолжительности трудностей в стране и др. Сопоставление результатов ответов позволяет автору говорить об определенном несоответствии представлений работников госаппарата с типичными воззрениями рядовых граждан.
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Опубликовано на портале: 03-02-2004
Sheetal K. Chand, Albert Jaeger Occasional Paper (International Monetary Fund). 1996.  No. 147.
This study was originally prepared for a seminar of the Executive Board of the Fund. It expresses a wide range of views with regard to the appropriate approach to pension reform and the pertinence of the analysis and recommendations. The study examines the pension-related aging problem primarily from a fiscal perspective. The focus is on the industrial countries.
Опубликовано на портале: 27-02-2004
Sara Rosenbaum, Phyllis C. Borzi, Vernon L. Smith Inquiry - Excellus Health Plan. 2001.  Vol. 38. No. 2. P. 193-195. 
The large number of uninsured working Americans and the extent of public support enjoyed by employment-based health insurance argues for a coverage initiative that fosters access to affordable benefits through employment. A proposal which reflects models in both Massachusetts and Michigan is described: it entails the development of publicly organized and subsidized group health insurance for small firms with low-wage workers. States would provide overall administration and subsidies to both employers and employees. The program would be a legislative extension of the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), with federal financing to participating states at each respective SCHIP rate.
Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2010
Яна Владимировна Полонская Журнал исследований социальной политики. 2007.  Т. 5. № 1. С. 133-139. 
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Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2003
Simon Commander, Andrei Tolstopiatenko, Ruslan Yemtsov William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series. 1997.  No. 42.
Among the many popular images of the Russian transition, none cast a more dramatic shadow than the apparently rapid transformation of an entire system from one characterised by low inequality and largely absent poverty to one marked by extremes of deprivation and prosperity. Once hailed as a salutary contrast to the extremes of well-being so characteristic of many economies at comparable levels of income, Russia now exhibits the tell-tale inequities that mark, for example, many Latin American economies. How accurate is this representation, both in its depiction of the situation pre-transition, let alone the consequences of recent changes? This paper is an attempt to answer these questions in as precise a manner as possible. The paper is organised as follows. Section 1 gives a brief description of the datasets — primarily the six rounds of a large household survey, the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) - that we use in this paper. Section 2 sets out the initial conditions that obtained in the Former Soviet Union and Russia and the picture that emerges from use of official statistics. These are shown to be seriously misleading in a number of key respects. Section 3 deals with the channels of redistribution that are likely to be present in the transition and surveys the evidence available from both aggregate data and firm-level information. In Section 4 the key channels are formalised in a two sector model of transition in which the reallocation of labour and capital across state and private sectors is seen as the determining feature of transition. The model is primarily concerned with labour allocation and hence can provide the paths of inequality and poverty over the transition primarily associated with labour income. Some simulations are presented which provide a set of simple benchmarks for understanding the size of likely effects from both within-sector inequality as also through restructuring and closure probabilities for state firms and the relative productivity of both state and private sectors. Section 5 turns to the empirical findings that emerge from a detailed look at the household surveys, including the factors driving the changes in inequality. Section 6 looks at how stable the transitions over the income distribution have been and, in particular, takes a closer look at groups of stable winners and losers. Section 7 turns to the measurement of poverty and the results that emerge from the household survey regarding both expenditure and income measured poverty. We also look at the characteristics of the poor. Section 8 concludes.
Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2010
Дина Владимировна Мазнева Журнал исследований социальной политики. 2004.  Т. 2. № 2. С. 289-293. 
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Опубликовано на портале: 13-02-2004
Martin Rain, Anne-Marie Guillemard Antitrust Law and Economics Review. 1993.  Vol. 19. P. 469-503. 
This essay reviews the changes in the age structure of modern labor markets that have led to a dramatic decline in the employment of older workers. We document this trend and explore future trends, examine different explanations of the role of the welfare state. the labor market. and the life course. Each of these perspectives offers different views into the social meaning of early retirement.
Опубликовано на портале: 01-12-2003
Anthony B. Atkinson World Bank Economic Review. 1991.  Vol. 5. No. 1. P. 3-21. 
Studies comparing poverty in different countries frequently inform the evaluation of past policies and the formulation of future policies for reducing poverty. If the comparisons are to be a valid foundation for such assessments, in particular if they are to be a guide to the effective allocation of funds, the underlying concepts must be examined and defined. This article discusses four issues that are critical in this respect: the choice of poverty indicator, the determination of the poverty line, the unit of analysis, and the choice of equivalance scale. A selection of studies of poverty in countries that belong to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development is used to show how the choices made in defining these indicators affect the findings about the extent and composition of the poor population. Although the context is different, the experience of rich countries may yield useful lessons for developing countries.
Опубликовано на портале: 25-02-2005
Donald Bruce Johnstone ICHEFAP Publications. 2003. 
Эта статья изучает историю распределения затрат на обучение в европейском высшем образовании. В качестве одного из способов финансирования высшего образования рассматриваются займы, объем которых зависит от дохода (income contingent loans), они призваны компенсировать студенту повседневные затраты, плату за обучение или и то, и другое.
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Опубликовано на портале: 02-12-2003
Francois Bourguignon Econometrica. 1979.  Vol. 47. No. 4. P. 901-920. 
A decomposable inequality measure is defined as a measure such that the total inequality of a population can be broken down into a weighted average of the inequality existing within subgroups of the population and the inequality existing between them. Thus, decomposable measures differ only by the weights given to the inequality within the subgroups of the population. It is proven that the only zero-homogeneous "income-weighted" decomposable measure is Theil's coefficient (T) and that the only zero-homogeneous "population-weighted" decomposable measure is the logarithm of the arithmetic mean over the geometric mean (L). More generally, it is proved that T and L are the only decomposable inequality measures such that the weight of the "within-components" in the total inequality of a partitioned population sum to a constant. More general decomposable measures are also analyzed.
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Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2003
Simon Kuznets American Economic Review. 1955.  Vol. 45. No. 1. P. 1-28. 
The process of industrialization engenders increasing income inequality as the labor force shifts from low-income agriculture to the high income sectors. On more advanced levels of development inequality starts decreasing and industrialized countries are again characterized by low inequality due to the smaller weight of agriculture in production (and income generation).
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Опубликовано на портале: 31-12-2010
Журнал исследований социальной политики. 2007.  Т. 5. № 2. С. 270-277. 
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-01-2007
Fred L. Block, Margaret R. Somers American Sociological Review. 2005.  Vol. 70. No. 2. P. 260-287. 
To understand the rise of market fundamentalism from the margins of influence to mainstream hegemony, we compare the US. 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunities Reconciliation Act and the English 1834 New Poor Law-two episodes in which existing welfare regimes were overturned by market-driven ones. Despite dramatic differences across the cases, both outcomes were mobilized by "the perversity thesis "-a public discourse that reassigned blame for the poor's condition from "poverty to perversity." We use the term "ideational embeddedness" to characterize the power of such ideas to shape, structure, and change market regimes. The success of the perversity thesis is based on the foundations of social naturalism, theoretical realism, and the conversion narrative. In the poverty to perversity conversion narrative, structural blame for poverty is discredited as empiricist appearance while the real problem is attributed to the corrosive effects of welfare's perverse incentives on poor people themselves-they become sexually promiscuous, thrust aside personal responsibility, and develop long-term dependency. This claim enables market fundamentalism to delegitimate existing ideational regimes, to survive disconfirming data, and to change the terms of debate from social problems to the timeless forces of nature and biology. Coupling economic sociology with a sociology of ideas, we argue that ideas count but not all ideas are created equal. Only some have the capacity to fuel radical transformations in the ideational embeddedness of markets.
Опубликовано на портале: 05-04-2013
Элла Львовна Панеях Laboratorium. Журнал социальных исследований. 2012.  № 3. С. 139-142. 
Книга французского социолога Жиля Фавареля-Гаррига, впервые опубликованная на французском языке в 2007 году и недавно вышедшая в английском переводе, посвящена анализу борьбы с экономической преступностью в СССР и России с 1965 года по середину 1990-х годов.
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Опубликовано на портале: 26-12-2010
Вестник общественного мнения: Данные. Анализ. Дискуссии. 2008.  Т. 97. № 5. С. 75-79. 
21–24 октября 2008 г. в Москве состоялся III Всероссийский социологический конгресс «Социология и общество: пути взаимодействия». Его организаторами были Институт социологии и Институт социально-политических исследований РАН, соорганизаторами – Государственный университет – Высшая школа экономики и Российское общество социологов. В рамках съезда прошло более 130-ти заседаний по 20 сессиям, 36 секциям, 28 круглым столам. Публикуем тезисы докладов и сообщений сотрудников Левада-Центра на этом съезде.
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