# Статьи

**Всего статей в данном разделе :**61

Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2003

*Simon Commander*,

*Andrei Tolstopiatenko*,

*Ruslan Yemtsov*William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series. 1997. No. 42.

Among the many popular images of the Russian transition, none cast a more dramatic
shadow than the apparently rapid transformation of an entire system from one characterised
by low inequality and largely absent poverty to one marked by extremes of deprivation
and prosperity. Once hailed as a salutary contrast to the extremes of well-being
so characteristic of many economies at comparable levels of income, Russia now exhibits
the tell-tale inequities that mark, for example, many Latin American economies. How
accurate is this representation, both in its depiction of the situation pre-transition,
let alone the consequences of recent changes? This paper is an attempt to answer
these questions in as precise a manner as possible.
The paper is organised as follows. Section 1 gives a brief description of the datasets
— primarily the six rounds of a large household survey, the Russian Longitudinal
Monitoring Survey (RLMS) - that we use in this paper. Section 2 sets out the initial
conditions that obtained in the Former Soviet Union and Russia and the picture that
emerges from use of official statistics. These are shown to be seriously misleading
in a number of key respects. Section 3 deals with the channels of redistribution
that are likely to be present in the transition and surveys the evidence available
from both aggregate data and firm-level information. In Section 4 the key channels
are formalised in a two sector model of transition in which the reallocation of labour
and capital across state and private sectors is seen as the determining feature of
transition. The model is primarily concerned with labour allocation and hence can
provide the paths of inequality and poverty over the transition primarily associated
with labour income. Some simulations are presented which provide a set of simple
benchmarks for understanding the size of likely effects from both within-sector
inequality as also through restructuring and closure probabilities for state firms
and the relative productivity of both state and private sectors. Section 5 turns
to the empirical findings that emerge from a detailed look at the household surveys,
including the factors driving the changes in inequality. Section 6 looks at how stable
the transitions over the income distribution have been and, in particular, takes
a closer look at groups of stable winners and losers. Section 7 turns to the measurement
of poverty and the results that emerge from the household survey regarding both expenditure
and income measured poverty. We also look at the characteristics of the poor. Section
8 concludes.

**Comparing Poverty Rates Internationally: Lessons from recent studies in developed countries**[статья]

Опубликовано на портале: 01-12-2003

*Anthony B. Atkinson*World Bank Economic Review. 1991. Vol. 5. No. 1. P. 3-21.

Studies comparing poverty in different countries frequently inform the evaluation
of past policies and the formulation of future policies for reducing poverty. If
the comparisons are to be a valid foundation for such assessments, in particular
if they are to be a guide to the effective allocation of funds, the underlying concepts
must be examined and defined. This article discusses four issues that are critical
in this respect: the choice of poverty indicator, the determination of the poverty
line, the unit of analysis, and the choice of equivalance scale. A selection of studies
of poverty in countries that belong to the Organization for Economic Cooperation
and Development is used to show how the choices made in defining these indicators
affect the findings about the extent and composition of the poor population. Although
the context is different, the experience of rich countries may yield useful lessons
for developing countries.

Опубликовано на портале: 02-12-2003

*Francois Bourguignon*Econometrica. 1979. Vol. 47. No. 4. P. 901-920.

A decomposable inequality measure is defined as a measure such that the total inequality
of a population can be broken down into a weighted average of the inequality existing
within subgroups of the population and the inequality existing between them. Thus,
decomposable measures differ only by the weights given to the inequality within the
subgroups of the population. It is proven that the only zero-homogeneous "income-weighted"
decomposable measure is Theil's coefficient (T) and that the only zero-homogeneous
"population-weighted" decomposable measure is the logarithm of the arithmetic mean
over the geometric mean (L). More generally, it is proved that T and L are the only
decomposable inequality measures such that the weight of the "within-components"
in the total inequality of a partitioned population sum to a constant. More general
decomposable measures are also analyzed.

Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2003

*Simon Kuznets*American Economic Review. 1955. Vol. 45. No. 1. P. 1-28.

The process of industrialization engenders increasing income inequality as the labor
force shifts from low-income agriculture to the high income sectors. On more advanced
levels of development inequality starts decreasing and industrialized countries are
again characterized by low inequality due to the smaller weight of agriculture in
production (and income generation).

Опубликовано на портале: 12-01-2004

*A. F. Shorrocks*Econometrica. 1982. Vol. 50. No. 1. P. 193-212.

This paper disaggregates the income of individuals or households into different factor
components, such as earnings, investment income, and transfer payments, and considers
how to assess the contributions of these sources to total income inequality. In the
approach adopted, a number of basic principles of decomposition are proposed and
their implications for the assignment of component contributions are examined.

Опубликовано на портале: 13-12-2003

*Anthony B. Atkinson*,

*Lee Rainwater*,

*Timothy Smeeding*Luxembourg Income Study Working Paper Series. 1995. No. 121.

The aim of this paper is to assemble empirical evidence about the personal distribution
of
income, and the trends in income inequality over time, in the countries of Europe
in the 1980s. It
encompasses fifteen European countries: the Nordic countries, Switzerland, and all
12 members
of the European Community (in 1994) apart from Greece. The United States is included
as a
point of reference.

Опубликовано на портале: 13-12-2003

*A. F. Shorrocks*Econometrica. 1984. Vol. 52. No. 6. P. 1369-1386.

This paper examines the implications of imposing a weak aggregation condition on
inequality indices, so that the overall inequality value can be computed from information
concerning the size, mean, and inequality value of each population subgroup. It is
shown that such decomposable inequality measures must be monotonic transformations
of additively decomposable indices. The general functional form of decomposable indices
is derived without assuming that the measures are differentiable. The analysis is
suitable for extension to the many other kinds of indices for which a similar relationship
between the overall index value and subaggregates is desirable.

**Investment in Human Beings**[статья]

Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2004

*Gary Stanley Becker*Journal of Political Economy. 1962. P. 9-49.

Публикация главы из книги Г. Беккера "Человеческий капитал", в которой
рассматривается проблематика инвестиций в повышение квалификации работника через дополнительное
образование. Описывается несколько схем оплаты дополнительного образования, дается оценка их
эффективности и динамика заработной платы работника в зависимости от выбранной схемы.
Русский перевод главы см.: "США: экономика, политика, идеология", № 11,
ноябрь, 1993 г.

**On Inequality Comparisons**[статья]

Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2003

*Gary S. Fields*,

*John C.H. Fei*Econometrica. 1978. Vol. 46. No. 2. P. 303-306.

In this paper, we have developed an approach to inequality comparisons which differs
from the conventional one. Beginning by postulating three axioms, we showed that
the axiomatic system so constructed is sufficient to justify the Lorenz criterion
for inequality comparisons. However, like the Lorenz criterion, the axiomatic system
is incomplete. Past researchers have achieved completeness by the use of cardinal
inequality measures. We showed that many but by no means all of the commonly used
indices satisfy our three axioms. The ones which do satisfy the axioms agree on the
ranking of distributions whose Lorenz curves do not intersect. However, when Lorenz
curves do intersect, the various measures partition the income distribution space
differently. Since the three axioms are insufficient to determine the specific partition
to use, the use of any of the conventional measures implicitly accepts the additional
welfare judgments associated with that measure.
The key issue for inequality comparisons is the reasonableness of the ordering criterion,
which in the case of cardinal measures is the index itself. An axiomatic approach
is probably the ideal method for confronting this issue, because the reasonable properties
(i.e., the axioms) are postulated explicitly. At minimum, this approach facilitates
communication by enabling (and indeed requiring) one to set forth clearly his own
viewpoints and value judgments for scrutiny by others. But in addition, to the extent
that one person's judgments (such as those in our three axioms) are acceptable to
others, controversies over inequality comparisons may be resolved. We have seen that
our three axioms are incomplete insofar as they cannot determine the ordinal ranking
uniquely. A feasible and desirable direction for future research is to investigate
what further axioms could be introduced to complete the axiomatic system or at least
to reduce further the zones of ambiguity.
It is conceivable that beyond some point the search for new axioms may turn out to
be unrewarding. In that case, inequality comparisons will always be subject to arbitary
specifications of welfare weights. The selection of suitable weights by whatever
reasonable criterion one cares to exercise is a less desirable but possibly more
practical alternative than a strictly axiomatic approach.
Our research has hopefully made clear that inequality comparisons cannot be made
without adopting value judgments, explicit or otherwise, about the desirability of
incomes accruing to persons at different positions in the income distribution. Even
the Lorenz criterion, which permits us to rank the relative inequality of different
distributions in only a fraction of the cases, embodies such judgments. The traditional
inequality indices such as those considered in Section 3, to the extent they complete
the ordering, embody some value judgments

Опубликовано на портале: 26-11-2003

*Amartya Sen*Econometrica. 1976. Vol. 44. No. 2. P. 219-231.

The primary aim of this paper is to propose a new measure of poverty, which should
avoid some of the shortcomings of the measures currently in use. An axiomatic approach
is used to derive the measure. The conception of welfare in the axiom set is ordinal.
The information requirement for the new measure is quite limited, permitting practical
use.

Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2003

*Ruslan Yemtsov*World Bank Poverty Net. 2002.

This paper analyzes regional data on inequality and poverty in Russia over the period
1994-2000 using published series from the regionally representative Household Budget
Survey. The paper finds that the share of inequality in Russia coming from the between-regions
component is large (close to a third of the total inequality), growing over time,
and accounting for most of the increase in the national inequality over 1994-2000.
The paper demonstrates an absence of inter-regional convergence in incomes across
Russian regions using various techniques, such as beta, sigma convergence and the
transition matrix approach. On the other hand, the paper finds an evidence of convergence
in the inequality within regions, which is trended towards an internationally high
level. Based on these two findings, the paper projects dynamics of inequality and
poverty in Russia over a ten years time horizon. Projections show that if the observed
trend is to continue in the future, by 2010 the absolute majority of the Russia’s
poor will be concentrated in few permanently impoverished regions, while relatively
more affluent regions will become virtually free of poverty. Finally, the paper
relates fluctuations in the inequality within regions to a set of factors determining
the speed of restructuring at the regional level, classified into four broad categories:
endowments and initial conditions, preferences, policies, and shocks; among these
factors short run fluctuations of the unemployment rate are revealed as significant
and strong correlates of inequality.

**The many faces of gender inequality**[статья]

Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2003

*Amartya Sen*The New Republic. 2001. P. 35-40.

Gender inequality has many distinct and dissimilar faces. In overcoming some of its
worst manifestations, especially in mortality rates, the cultivation of women's empowerment
and agency, through such means as women's education and gainful employment, has proved
very effective. But in dealing with the new form of gender inequality, the injustice
relating to natality, there is a need to go beyond the question of the agency of
women and to look for a more critical assessment of received values. When anti-female
bias in behavior {such as sex-specitic abortion) reflects the hold of traditional
masculinist values from which mothers themselves may not be immune, what is needed
is not just freedom of action but also freedom of thought — the freedom to
question and to scrutinize inherited beliefs and traditional priorities. Informed
critical agency is important in combating inequality of every kind, and gender inequality
is no exception.

Опубликовано на портале: 01-12-2003

*Martin Ravallion*,

*Shaohua Chen*World Bank Economic Review. 1997. Vol. 11. No. 2.

Is it true that the poor have lost ground, even as average living standards have
risen? No. Poor people typically share in rising average living standards. It has
been claimed that in recent times the poor have lost ground, both relatively and
absolutely, even as average standards of living were rising. Ravallion and Chen test
that claim, using more than 100 household surveys for more than 40 countries. Overall
there was a small decrease in poverty incidence in 1987-93, though experiences differed
across regions and countries. There was no general tendency for inequality or polarization
to increase with growth. Distribution improves as often as it worsens in growing
economies, and negative growth often appears to be highly detrimental to distribution.
Poor people typically do share in rising average living standards. This holds in
all regions.
It has been claimed that in recent times the poor have lost ground, both relatively
and absolutely, even when average levels of living have risen. This article tests
that claim using household surveys for 67 developing and transitional economies over
1981-94. It finds that changes in inequality and polarization were uncorrelated with
changes in average living standards. Distribution improved as often as it worsened
in growing economies, and negative growth was often more detrimental to distribution
than positive growth. Overall, there was a small decrease in absolute poverty, although
with diverse experiences across regions and countries. Almost always, poverty fell
with growth in average living standards and rose with contraction.

**Бедность и маргинализация населения**[статья]

Опубликовано на портале: 17-07-2006

*Наталья Михайловна Римашевская*Социологические исследования. 2004. № 4. С. 33-43.

Автор подробно рассматривает историю обозначенной проблемы, особое внимание уделяя
методикам оценки "бедности" и "малообеспеченности" населения. Однако можно сделать
общий вывод о том, что масштабы бедности сводятся фактически к выявлению доли и численности
бедных в населении страны или региона. Исходным при этом является вычленение границы
бедности, методология которой имеет по крайней мере три практики: абсолютный подход,
основанный на сопоставлении денежных доходов или расходов с прожиточным минимумом,
депривационный, построенный путем измерения бедности относительно преобладающих в обществе
стандартов потребления, и субъективный, измеряющий бедность через представления самого
населения о денежных ресурсах, необходимых семье, чтобы не быть бедной.

**Бедные дети богатой Америки**[статья]

Опубликовано на портале: 17-07-2006

*Ольга Борисовна Осколкова*Социологические исследования. 2003. № 2. С. 78-86.

Бедность детей в США в несколько раз превосходит аналогичные показатели по другим
развитым странам с рыночной экономикой. Вместе с тем богатство Америки, если исходить
из размера ВВП, с 1965 по 1992 гг. почти удвоилось, но бедных детей практически не
убавилось. При этом, среди тех детей, кто относится к беднякам, половина находится
в таком положении, что доход, который на них приходится, составляет лишь половину
дохода официальной черты бедности. Основываясь на богатом статистическом материале,
автор сопоставляет различные американские программы помощи бедным семьям.