Эксоцман
на главную поиск contacts
В разделе собрана информация о статьях по экономике, социологии и менеджменту. Во многих случаях приводятся полные тексты статей. (подробнее...)

Статьи

Всего статей в данном разделе : 61

Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2003
Simon Commander, Andrei Tolstopiatenko, Ruslan Yemtsov William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series. 1997.  No. 42.
Among the many popular images of the Russian transition, none cast a more dramatic shadow than the apparently rapid transformation of an entire system from one characterised by low inequality and largely absent poverty to one marked by extremes of deprivation and prosperity. Once hailed as a salutary contrast to the extremes of well-being so characteristic of many economies at comparable levels of income, Russia now exhibits the tell-tale inequities that mark, for example, many Latin American economies. How accurate is this representation, both in its depiction of the situation pre-transition, let alone the consequences of recent changes? This paper is an attempt to answer these questions in as precise a manner as possible. The paper is organised as follows. Section 1 gives a brief description of the datasets — primarily the six rounds of a large household survey, the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) - that we use in this paper. Section 2 sets out the initial conditions that obtained in the Former Soviet Union and Russia and the picture that emerges from use of official statistics. These are shown to be seriously misleading in a number of key respects. Section 3 deals with the channels of redistribution that are likely to be present in the transition and surveys the evidence available from both aggregate data and firm-level information. In Section 4 the key channels are formalised in a two sector model of transition in which the reallocation of labour and capital across state and private sectors is seen as the determining feature of transition. The model is primarily concerned with labour allocation and hence can provide the paths of inequality and poverty over the transition primarily associated with labour income. Some simulations are presented which provide a set of simple benchmarks for understanding the size of likely effects from both within-sector inequality as also through restructuring and closure probabilities for state firms and the relative productivity of both state and private sectors. Section 5 turns to the empirical findings that emerge from a detailed look at the household surveys, including the factors driving the changes in inequality. Section 6 looks at how stable the transitions over the income distribution have been and, in particular, takes a closer look at groups of stable winners and losers. Section 7 turns to the measurement of poverty and the results that emerge from the household survey regarding both expenditure and income measured poverty. We also look at the characteristics of the poor. Section 8 concludes.
Опубликовано на портале: 01-12-2003
Anthony B. Atkinson World Bank Economic Review. 1991.  Vol. 5. No. 1. P. 3-21. 
Studies comparing poverty in different countries frequently inform the evaluation of past policies and the formulation of future policies for reducing poverty. If the comparisons are to be a valid foundation for such assessments, in particular if they are to be a guide to the effective allocation of funds, the underlying concepts must be examined and defined. This article discusses four issues that are critical in this respect: the choice of poverty indicator, the determination of the poverty line, the unit of analysis, and the choice of equivalance scale. A selection of studies of poverty in countries that belong to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development is used to show how the choices made in defining these indicators affect the findings about the extent and composition of the poor population. Although the context is different, the experience of rich countries may yield useful lessons for developing countries.
Опубликовано на портале: 02-12-2003
Francois Bourguignon Econometrica. 1979.  Vol. 47. No. 4. P. 901-920. 
A decomposable inequality measure is defined as a measure such that the total inequality of a population can be broken down into a weighted average of the inequality existing within subgroups of the population and the inequality existing between them. Thus, decomposable measures differ only by the weights given to the inequality within the subgroups of the population. It is proven that the only zero-homogeneous "income-weighted" decomposable measure is Theil's coefficient (T) and that the only zero-homogeneous "population-weighted" decomposable measure is the logarithm of the arithmetic mean over the geometric mean (L). More generally, it is proved that T and L are the only decomposable inequality measures such that the weight of the "within-components" in the total inequality of a partitioned population sum to a constant. More general decomposable measures are also analyzed.
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2003
Simon Kuznets American Economic Review. 1955.  Vol. 45. No. 1. P. 1-28. 
The process of industrialization engenders increasing income inequality as the labor force shifts from low-income agriculture to the high income sectors. On more advanced levels of development inequality starts decreasing and industrialized countries are again characterized by low inequality due to the smaller weight of agriculture in production (and income generation).
ресурс содержит полный текст, либо отрывок из него
Опубликовано на портале: 12-01-2004
A. F. Shorrocks Econometrica. 1982.  Vol. 50. No. 1. P. 193-212. 
This paper disaggregates the income of individuals or households into different factor components, such as earnings, investment income, and transfer payments, and considers how to assess the contributions of these sources to total income inequality. In the approach adopted, a number of basic principles of decomposition are proposed and their implications for the assignment of component contributions are examined.
Опубликовано на портале: 13-12-2003
Anthony B. Atkinson, Lee Rainwater, Timothy Smeeding Luxembourg Income Study Working Paper Series. 1995.  No. 121.
The aim of this paper is to assemble empirical evidence about the personal distribution of income, and the trends in income inequality over time, in the countries of Europe in the 1980s. It encompasses fifteen European countries: the Nordic countries, Switzerland, and all 12 members of the European Community (in 1994) apart from Greece. The United States is included as a point of reference.
ресурс содержит полный текст, либо отрывок из него ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию
Опубликовано на портале: 13-12-2003
A. F. Shorrocks Econometrica. 1984.  Vol. 52. No. 6. P. 1369-1386. 
This paper examines the implications of imposing a weak aggregation condition on inequality indices, so that the overall inequality value can be computed from information concerning the size, mean, and inequality value of each population subgroup. It is shown that such decomposable inequality measures must be monotonic transformations of additively decomposable indices. The general functional form of decomposable indices is derived without assuming that the measures are differentiable. The analysis is suitable for extension to the many other kinds of indices for which a similar relationship between the overall index value and subaggregates is desirable.
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию
Опубликовано на портале: 28-04-2004
Gary Stanley Becker Journal of Political Economy. 1962.  P. 9-49. 
Публикация главы из книги Г. Беккера "Человеческий капитал", в которой рассматривается проблематика инвестиций в повышение квалификации работника через дополнительное образование. Описывается несколько схем оплаты дополнительного образования, дается оценка их эффективности и динамика заработной платы работника в зависимости от выбранной схемы. Русский перевод главы см.: "США: экономика, политика, идеология", № 11, ноябрь, 1993 г.
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2003
Gary S. Fields, John C.H. Fei Econometrica. 1978.  Vol. 46. No. 2. P. 303-306. 
In this paper, we have developed an approach to inequality comparisons which differs from the conventional one. Beginning by postulating three axioms, we showed that the axiomatic system so constructed is sufficient to justify the Lorenz criterion for inequality comparisons. However, like the Lorenz criterion, the axiomatic system is incomplete. Past researchers have achieved completeness by the use of cardinal inequality measures. We showed that many but by no means all of the commonly used indices satisfy our three axioms. The ones which do satisfy the axioms agree on the ranking of distributions whose Lorenz curves do not intersect. However, when Lorenz curves do intersect, the various measures partition the income distribution space differently. Since the three axioms are insufficient to determine the specific partition to use, the use of any of the conventional measures implicitly accepts the additional welfare judgments associated with that measure. The key issue for inequality comparisons is the reasonableness of the ordering criterion, which in the case of cardinal measures is the index itself. An axiomatic approach is probably the ideal method for confronting this issue, because the reasonable properties (i.e., the axioms) are postulated explicitly. At minimum, this approach facilitates communication by enabling (and indeed requiring) one to set forth clearly his own viewpoints and value judgments for scrutiny by others. But in addition, to the extent that one person's judgments (such as those in our three axioms) are acceptable to others, controversies over inequality comparisons may be resolved. We have seen that our three axioms are incomplete insofar as they cannot determine the ordinal ranking uniquely. A feasible and desirable direction for future research is to investigate what further axioms could be introduced to complete the axiomatic system or at least to reduce further the zones of ambiguity. It is conceivable that beyond some point the search for new axioms may turn out to be unrewarding. In that case, inequality comparisons will always be subject to arbitary specifications of welfare weights. The selection of suitable weights by whatever reasonable criterion one cares to exercise is a less desirable but possibly more practical alternative than a strictly axiomatic approach. Our research has hopefully made clear that inequality comparisons cannot be made without adopting value judgments, explicit or otherwise, about the desirability of incomes accruing to persons at different positions in the income distribution. Even the Lorenz criterion, which permits us to rank the relative inequality of different distributions in only a fraction of the cases, embodies such judgments. The traditional inequality indices such as those considered in Section 3, to the extent they complete the ordering, embody some value judgments
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию
Опубликовано на портале: 26-11-2003
Amartya Sen Econometrica. 1976.  Vol. 44. No. 2. P. 219-231. 
The primary aim of this paper is to propose a new measure of poverty, which should avoid some of the shortcomings of the measures currently in use. An axiomatic approach is used to derive the measure. The conception of welfare in the axiom set is ordinal. The information requirement for the new measure is quite limited, permitting practical use.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2003
Ruslan Yemtsov World Bank Poverty Net. 2002. 
This paper analyzes regional data on inequality and poverty in Russia over the period 1994-2000 using published series from the regionally representative Household Budget Survey. The paper finds that the share of inequality in Russia coming from the between-regions component is large (close to a third of the total inequality), growing over time, and accounting for most of the increase in the national inequality over 1994-2000. The paper demonstrates an absence of inter-regional convergence in incomes across Russian regions using various techniques, such as beta, sigma convergence and the transition matrix approach. On the other hand, the paper finds an evidence of convergence in the inequality within regions, which is trended towards an internationally high level. Based on these two findings, the paper projects dynamics of inequality and poverty in Russia over a ten years time horizon. Projections show that if the observed trend is to continue in the future, by 2010 the absolute majority of the Russia’s poor will be concentrated in few permanently impoverished regions, while relatively more affluent regions will become virtually free of poverty. Finally, the paper relates fluctuations in the inequality within regions to a set of factors determining the speed of restructuring at the regional level, classified into four broad categories: endowments and initial conditions, preferences, policies, and shocks; among these factors short run fluctuations of the unemployment rate are revealed as significant and strong correlates of inequality.
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2003
Amartya Sen The New Republic. 2001.  P. 35-40. 
Gender inequality has many distinct and dissimilar faces. In overcoming some of its worst manifestations, especially in mortality rates, the cultivation of women's empowerment and agency, through such means as women's education and gainful employment, has proved very effective. But in dealing with the new form of gender inequality, the injustice relating to natality, there is a need to go beyond the question of the agency of women and to look for a more critical assessment of received values. When anti-female bias in behavior {such as sex-specitic abortion) reflects the hold of traditional masculinist values from which mothers themselves may not be immune, what is needed is not just freedom of action but also freedom of thought — the freedom to question and to scrutinize inherited beliefs and traditional priorities. Informed critical agency is important in combating inequality of every kind, and gender inequality is no exception.
Опубликовано на портале: 01-12-2003
Martin Ravallion, Shaohua Chen World Bank Economic Review. 1997.  Vol. 11. No. 2.
Is it true that the poor have lost ground, even as average living standards have risen? No. Poor people typically share in rising average living standards. It has been claimed that in recent times the poor have lost ground, both relatively and absolutely, even as average standards of living were rising. Ravallion and Chen test that claim, using more than 100 household surveys for more than 40 countries. Overall there was a small decrease in poverty incidence in 1987-93, though experiences differed across regions and countries. There was no general tendency for inequality or polarization to increase with growth. Distribution improves as often as it worsens in growing economies, and negative growth often appears to be highly detrimental to distribution. Poor people typically do share in rising average living standards. This holds in all regions. It has been claimed that in recent times the poor have lost ground, both relatively and absolutely, even when average levels of living have risen. This article tests that claim using household surveys for 67 developing and transitional economies over 1981-94. It finds that changes in inequality and polarization were uncorrelated with changes in average living standards. Distribution improved as often as it worsened in growing economies, and negative growth was often more detrimental to distribution than positive growth. Overall, there was a small decrease in absolute poverty, although with diverse experiences across regions and countries. Almost always, poverty fell with growth in average living standards and rose with contraction.
ресурс содержит гиперссылку на сайт, на котором можно найти дополнительную информацию
Опубликовано на портале: 17-07-2006
Наталья Михайловна Римашевская Социологические исследования. 2004.  № 4. С. 33-43. 
Автор подробно рассматривает историю обозначенной проблемы, особое внимание уделяя методикам оценки "бедности" и "малообеспеченности" населения. Однако можно сделать общий вывод о том, что масштабы бедности сводятся фактически к выявлению доли и численности бедных в населении страны или региона. Исходным при этом является вычленение границы бедности, методология которой имеет по крайней мере три практики: абсолютный подход, основанный на сопоставлении денежных доходов или расходов с прожиточным минимумом, депривационный, построенный путем измерения бедности относительно преобладающих в обществе стандартов потребления, и субъективный, измеряющий бедность через представления самого населения о денежных ресурсах, необходимых семье, чтобы не быть бедной.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл
Опубликовано на портале: 17-07-2006
Ольга Борисовна Осколкова Социологические исследования. 2003.  № 2. С. 78-86. 
Бедность детей в США в несколько раз превосходит аналогичные показатели по другим развитым странам с рыночной экономикой. Вместе с тем богатство Америки, если исходить из размера ВВП, с 1965 по 1992 гг. почти удвоилось, но бедных детей практически не убавилось. При этом, среди тех детей, кто относится к беднякам, половина находится в таком положении, что доход, который на них приходится, составляет лишь половину дохода официальной черты бедности. Основываясь на богатом статистическом материале, автор сопоставляет различные американские программы помощи бедным семьям.
ресурс содержит прикрепленный файл