Всего статей в данном разделе : 235
Опубликовано на портале: 14-06-2006Timothy J. Brailsford, Barry R. Oliver, Sandra L. H. Pua Accounting & Finance. 2003. Vol. 42. No. 1. P. 1-26.
The agency relationship between managers and shareholders has the potential to influence decision-making in the firm which in turn potentially impacts on firm characteristics such as value and leverage. Prior evidence has demonstrated an association between ownership structure and firm value. This paper extends the literature by examining a further link between ownership structure and capital structure. Using an agency framework, it is argued that the distribution of equity ownership among corporate managers and external blockholders may have a significant relation with leverage. The empirical results provide support for a positive relation between external blockholders and leverage, and non-linear relation between the level of managerial share ownership and leverage. The results also suggest that the relation between external block ownership and leverage varies across the level of managerial share ownership. These results are consistent with active monitoring by blockholders, and the effects of convergence-of-interests and management entrenchment.
Опубликовано на портале: 21-06-2006Robert C. Kee Advances in Management Accounting. 2003. Vol. 11. P. 59-84.
Among others, have asserted that activity-based costing (ABC) is inappropriate for operational decision-making. In this article, ABC is modified to reflect separate flexible and committed cost driver rates for an activity. This enables the model to reflect the difference in the behavior of an activity’s flexible and committed costs needed for operational planning decisions. The modified ABC facilitates determining the resources required to produce the product mix developed from the firm’s strategic plan and the excess capacity that will result. The modifications made to ABC aid in determining an optimal product mix when the firm has excess capacity, while the traditional ABC may not. Equally important, it facilitates measuring the financial implications of the resource allocation decisions that comprise the firm’s operational plan. As the operational plan is implemented, operational control is used to ensure that it is performed in an efficient and effective manner. The modified ABC enables the firm’s managers to compute the different types of deviations that arise from using flexible and committed resources at the unit, batch, and product levels of the firm’s operations. This aids in understanding problematic aspects of the firm’s operations and identifying where management resources are needed to improve operational efficiency.
Опубликовано на портале: 14-06-2006Maciej Dzierzanowski, Piotr Tamowicz Corporate Ownership & Control. 2004. Vol. 1. No. 3. P. 20-30.
With the company-level data on listed and unlisted companies we analyse ownership and control of Polish corporations. We find that voting control in listed corporations is remarkably concentrated with the median size of the largest block amounting to 39,5%. A sustainable concentration trend has been observed over the whole last decade. Other companies and individuals/families (mostly founders) dominate among the largest block-holders of Polish corporations. Banks' involvement in control is below common expectations. It is also observed that-especially in smaller firms-managerial ownership is quite large. Frequently, managers are also the company founders and first or second largest block-holder. The extent of ownership and control separation is very modest with dual-class shares being the most popular device to leverage control over ownership; control through subsidiaries is applied to a lesser extent. The presence of large blockholders in listed corporations puts the minority rights and conflict of interests among stakeholders on the top of the policy agenda. Our analysis shows that the Polish capital market may be in desperate need of improvement in this respect.
Опубликовано на портале: 14-06-2006Steen Thomsen, Torben Pedersen Strategic management journal. 2000. Vol. 21. No. 6. P. 689-696.
The paper examines the impact of ownership structure on company economic performance in 435 of the largest European companies. Controlling for industry, capital structure and nation effects we find a positive effect of ownership concentration on shareholder value (market -to- book value of equity) and profitability (asset returns), but the effect levels off for high ownership shares. Furthermore we propose and support the hypothesis that the identity of large owners—family, bank, institutional investor, government, and other companies—has important implications for corporate strategy and performance. For example, compared to other owner identities, financial investor ownership is found to be associated with higher shareholder value and profitability, but lower sales growth. The effect of ownership concentration is also found to depend on owner identity.
Planning in Ambiguous Context: The Dilemma of Meeting Needs for Commitment and Demands for Legitimacy [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 13-02-2007Melissa Middleton Stone, Candida Greer Brush Strategic management journal. 1986. Vol. 17. No. 8. P. 633-652.
This paper argues that ambiguity of context manifested in pressures for legitimacy and commitment affect planning processes. Ambiguity arises from multiple conflicting constituencies and the lack of direct control over resources. Using nonprofit and enterpreneurial organizations as examples of organizations facing ambiguous contexts, we examine their planning practices to develop an understanding of the relationship between commitment, legitimacy, and planning.
Pyramidal Groups and Debt [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 16-06-2006Magda Bianco, Giovanna Nicodano European Economic Review. 2006. Vol. 50. No. 4. P. 937-961.
This paper suggests that debt should be raised by subsidiaries in order to exploit the limited liability of the holding company. However, when this behavior increases the cost of funds, the holding might prefer to raise debt to a point where it would also default when subsidiaries are insolvent. After accounting for standard controls, we find that holding companies in Italian pyramids have higher leverage than subsidiaries and that the cash-flow share of the entrepreneur in the subsidiary does not play a significant role. These findings are consistent with the implications of our model of group capital structure.
Regional Regulation of Multistate Holding Companies: A Model for Readjusting the Federal-State Boundary [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 16-06-2006Clinton A. Vince, Sherry A. Quirk, Richard A. Glick The Electricity Journal. 1990. Vol. 3. No. 10. P. 56-67.
There is now a conspicuous gap in regulation of holding company systems. This proposal for multistate involvement in these systems' planning processes would restore balance to the state-federal regulatory relationship.
Опубликовано на портале: 14-06-2006Mark G. Brown Euromoney. 2005. Vol. 36. No. 433. P. 29-29.
This article focuses on the leveraged buyout (LBO) market in Europe. Two contrasting European leveraged buyouts have shown how the leveraged finance market is developing in 2005. While ideas like Cablecom's refinancing and Greece's first ever LBO are being funded largely in the bond markets, the secondary buyout of German motorway service station chain Tank & Rast backed the trend and used senior debt. Allianz Capital Partners, Lufthansa and funds advised by Apax Partners agreed to sell their shares in Tank & Rast to British private-equity house Terra Firma Capital Partners in November 2004. Terra had been looking at the acquisition for more than a year. Meanwhile,JP Morgan and Deutsche Bank are acting as arrangers and bookrunners on the LBO of 80.87% in Telecom Italia's Greek mobile operator Tim Hellas Communications.
Опубликовано на портале: 16-06-2006Susana Álvarez, Víctor M. González Journal of Business Finance & Accounting. 2005. Vol. 32. No. 1/2. P. 325-350.
Academic research into firms that have gone public has focused on the study of two anomalies: initial underpricing and long-run underperformance. We analyse Spanish Initial Public Offerings to provide additional evidence on the long-run performance of IPOs and its relationship with initial underpricing. Results reveal the existence of negative long-run abnormal stock returns, in line with the international literature. Long-run performance presents a positive relationship with underpricing and the volume of funds obtained in seasoned offerings, in consonance with the predictions of,and.
Опубликовано на портале: 16-06-2006Anthony Yanxiang Gu American Business Review. 2003. Vol. 21. No. 2. P. 101-109.
Examines the impact of state ownership, firm size and initial public offering performance in China. High initial and short-term returns; Indication that firm size, has a significant positive impact on the Suggestion that investors believe that large companies are less risky and have stronger demand for their stocks.
Опубликовано на портале: 21-06-2006Robert G. Dyson The Journal of the Operational Research Society. 2000. Vol. 51. No. 1. P. 5-11.
This paper explores the nature of operational research and its interactions with performance measurement and strategy. It is argued that operational research (OR) is well fitted to handle strategic issues as the modelling approach of OR facilitates understanding and learning, and the evaluation of strategies prior to action. The development of problem structuring methods is also a key aid to strategy and policy formulation. OR is also beginning to play a role in performance measurement and there is an opportunity for OR to lead in the improvement of performance measurement systems.
Опубликовано на портале: 21-06-2006Douglass Cagwin, Marinus J. Bouwman Management Accounting Research. 2002. Vol. 13. No. 1. P. 1-39.
This study investigates the improvement in financial performance that is associated with the use of activity-based costing (ABC), and the conditions under which such improvement is achieved. Internal auditors furnish information regarding company financial performance, extent of ABC usage, and enabling conditions that have been identified in the literature as affecting ABC efficacy. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling are used to investigate the relationship between ABC and financial performance. Results show that there indeed is a positive association between ABC and improvement in ROI when ABC is used concurrently with other strategic initiatives, when implemented in complex and diverse firms, when used in environments where costs are relatively important, and when there are limited numbers of intra-company transactions. In addition, measures of success of ABC used in prior research appear to be predictors of improvement in financial performance.
Опубликовано на портале: 05-06-2006Naveen Khanna, Sheri Tice Journal of Finance. 2001. Vol. 56. No. 4.
We examine capital expenditure decisions of discount firms in response to Wal-Mart's entry into their markets. Before Wal-Mart's entry, focused incumbents and discount divisions of diversified incumbents are similar in size, geographic dispersion, and firm debt levels. However, discount divisions of diversified firms are significantly more productive. After Wal-Mart's entry, diversified firms are quicker to either “exit” the discount business or “stay and fight.” Also, their capital expenditures are more sensitive to the productivity of their discount business. Internal capital markets function well, as transfers are away from the worsening discount divisions. It appears diversified firms make better investment decisions.
The Dark Side of Internal Capital Markets: Divisional Rent-Seeking and Inefficient Investment. [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 05-06-2006David S. Scharfstein, Jeremy C. Stein Journal of Finance. 2000. Vol. 55. No. 6. P. 2537-2565.
We develop a two-tiered agency model that shows how rent-seeking behavior on the part of division managers can subvert the workings of an internal capital market. By rent-seeking, division managers can raise their bargaining power and extract greater overall compensation from the CEO. And because the CEO is herself an agent of outside investors, this extra compensation may take the form not of cash wages, but rather of preferential capital budgeting allocations. One interesting feature of our model is that it implies a kind of "socialism" in internal capital allocation, whereby weaker divisions get subsidized by stronger ones.
The Effect of Forward Markets on the Debt-Equity Mix of Investor Portfolios and the Optimal Capital Structure of Firms. [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 14-06-2006Sheridan Titman Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis. 1985. Vol. 20. No. 1. P. 19-28.
This paper demonstrates that the various market imperfections that have been suggested to explain observed portfolio choices and capital structures can be circumvented if securities (e.g., options) can be traded that simulate forward contracts on stock. It is shown that if the risk-adjusted returns to bondholders exceed the returns to stockholders (to reflect personal tax differences) tax-exempt investors will prefer a combination of these synthetic forward purchases and corporate bonds to purchasing stock directly. They will not, as has been suggested, include stock in their portfolios for diversification purposes when they can alternatively purchase securities that simulate forward contracts. It is also shown that firms that can sell synthetic forward positions on their own stock can essentially guarantee that sufficient funds will be available to meet their bond obligations. This gives firms the opportunity to increase their debt levels without increasing the possibility of bankruptcy and the corresponding administrative and agency costs.