Всего статей в данном разделе : 16
Опубликовано на портале: 16-06-2006Congsheng Wu Journal of Business & Economic Studies. 2005. Vol. 11. No. 1. P. 19-33.
This study examines the relation between the offer price adjustment, initial return, and subsequent short-run performance for a sample of initial public offerings (IPO's) made by US industrial companies from 1986 to 1996. The IPO's are divided into three categories (cold, cool, and hot issues) based on the offer price relative to the suggested price range revealed in the preliminary prospectus. It is found that the offer price adjustment not only predicts the first-day return, but also predicts subsequent short-run performance in the same direction up to three months after issuance. Moreover, different types of IPO's demonstrate distinct cross-sectional behavior in multivariate regressions of initial returns. Our results suggest that cold IPO's are quite unique and deserve more attention in future studies.
Опубликовано на портале: 14-06-2006Mihir A. Desai, C. Fritz Foley, James R. Hines Journal of Finance. 2004. Vol. 59. No. 6. P. 2451-2487.
This paper analyzes the capital structures of foreign affiliates and internal capital markets of multinational corporations. Ten percent higher local tax rates are associated with 2.8% higher debt/asset ratios, with internal borrowing being particularly sensitive to taxes. Multinational affiliates are financed with less external debt in countries with underdeveloped capital markets or weak creditor rights, reflecting significantly higher local borrowing costs. Instrumental variable analysis indicates that greater borrowing from parent companies substitutes for three-quarters of reduced external borrowing induced by capital market conditions. Multinational firms appear to employ internal capital markets opportunistically to overcome imperfections in external capital markets.
Опубликовано на портале: 16-06-2006Robert Goldstein, Nengju Ju, Hayne E. Leland Journal of Business. 2001. Vol. 74. No. 4. P. 483-513.
A model of dynamic capital structure is proposed. Even though the optimal strategy is implemented over an arbitrarily large number of restructuring-periods, a scaling feature inherent in the framework permits simple closed-form expressions to be obtained for equity and debt prices. When a firm has the option to increase future debt levels, tax advantages to debt increase significantly, and both the optimal leverage ratio range and predicted credit spreads are more in line with what is observed in practice.
Опубликовано на портале: 14-06-2006Hyun-Han Shin, Rene M. Stulz Quarterly Journal of Economics. 1998. Vol. 113. No. 2. P. 531-552.
Using segment information from Compustat, we find that the investment by a segment of a diversified firm depends on the cash flow of the firm's other segments, but significantly less than it depends on its own cash flow. The investment by segments of highly diversified firms is less sensitive to their cash flow than the investment of comparable single-segment firms. The sensitivity of a segment's investment to the cash flow of other segments does not depend on whether its investment opportunities are better than those of the firm's other segments.
Опубликовано на портале: 16-06-2006Kee H. Chung, Mingsheng Li, Linda Yu Financial Management. 2005. Vol. 34. No. 3. P. 65-88.
We consider a simple model positing that initial public offering price is equal to the present value of an entity's assets in place and growth opportunities. The model predicts that initial return is positively related to both the size and risk of growth opportunities. Consistent with this prediction, we find initial return to be positively related to both the fraction of the offer price that is accounted for by the present value of growth opportunities and various proxies of issue uncertainty. We also find that IPO investors equate one dollar of growth opportunities to approximately three quarters of tangible assets.
Опубликовано на портале: 14-06-2006J. R. Franks, J. J. Pringle Journal of Finance. 1982. Vol. 37. No. 3. P. 751-763.
In this paper we consider the role of financial intermediaries in the valuation of firms and projects. We show that security prices should reflect both used and unused debt capacity if some corporations can act as financial intermediaries and can capture the tax benefits of debt capacity unused by the operating firm. We also provide some reasons why the value of the firm might be increased if the financing and operating risks of the firm are separated and financial intermediaries issue debt rather than the unit operating the asset.
Опубликовано на портале: 14-06-2006Shenghui Tong, Ning Yixi Journal of Investing. 2004. Vol. 13. No. 4. P. 53-66.
The article studies the affect of capital structure on institutional investor choices. Institutional investors play a critical role in supervising the management of the companies. Most of the S&P 500 firms tend to have large institutional holdings. The finding of the study suggests that the capital structure influences stock picking choices of institutional investors. There is a negative relation between dividend yield and institutional ownership. There is limited evidence that institutional investors prefer firms with low debt ratios, high ratios of capital expenditures to assets, and high ratios of cash flow to sales.
Опубликовано на портале: 14-06-2006Maretno Harjoto, John Garen Journal of Corporate Finance. 2005. Vol. 11. No. 4. P. 661-679.
This study examines the firm's equity ownership by insiders and blockholders starting right after the firm goes public, its decline thereafter, and what alters the decline. Previous literature has shown the incentive of insiders to let their ownership fall after their initial public offering (IPO). After the IPO, management attains only a fraction of the benefits of good governance, so has an incentive to let inside ownership erode. We verify this, but examine the effect that re-entry into capital market via a seasoned equity offering (SEO) has on insider ownership. The incentive of management to hold stock is restored by a desire to raise additional capital because it implicitly raises management's stake. We show empirically that it raises insider stockholding relative to what it otherwise would have been, thus providing an avenue by which this aspect of corporate governance is improved. This, and other results, is shown with a sample of IPO firms during 1996 and 1997. Our findings indicate that, in expectation, the increased holdings due to re-entry into the capital market almost exactly offsets 1 year's downward trend in management shareholdings. Also, we find an interesting interplay between types of blockholders in that CEOs tend to hold less stock after the IPO if external blockholders initially hold more.
Internal Capital Markets, Bank Borrowing, and Financing Constraints: Evidence from Belgian Firms [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 14-06-2006Marc Deloof Journal of Business Finance & Accounting. 1998. Vol. 25. No. 7/8. P. 945-968.
Presents information on the interpretation regarding the Belgian firms belonging to a corporate group, where investment is incompletely financed on an internal capital market of the group. How many firms are indirectly controlled; Important role the holding companies and corporate groups play in the financing of Belgian firms; Reference to the tracing of origins of these networks.
Опубликовано на портале: 14-06-2006Julia Porter Liebeskind Organization Science. 2000. Vol. 11. No. 1. P. 58-77.
Diversification not only internalizes transactions of goods and services, but it also internalizes transactions of capital. Hence, the value of diversification will depend, inter alia, on whether internal capital markets are relatively efficient or inefficient. This essay reviews and discusses the possible benefits and costs of internal capital markets by conducting a careful comparative institutional analysis. The essay concludes that internal capital markets can add value to lines of business only under a limited number of circumstances. Some recent developments in the organization of internal capital markets in diversified firms can be understood as attempts to increase their efficiency.
Опубликовано на портале: 16-06-2006François Derrien Journal of Business Finance & Accounting. 2005. Vol. 32. No. 1/2. P. 325-350.
This paper explores the impact of investor sentiment on IPO pricing. Using a model in which the aftermarket price of IPO shares depends on the information about the intrinsic value of the company and investor sentiment, I show that IPOs can be overpriced and still exhibit positive initial return. A sample of recent French offerings with a fraction of the shares reserved for individual investors supports the predictions of the model. Individual investors' demand is positively related to market conditions. Moreover, large individual investors' demand leads to high IPO prices, large initial returns, and poor long-run performance.
Pyramidal Groups and Debt [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 16-06-2006Magda Bianco, Giovanna Nicodano European Economic Review. 2006. Vol. 50. No. 4. P. 937-961.
This paper suggests that debt should be raised by subsidiaries in order to exploit the limited liability of the holding company. However, when this behavior increases the cost of funds, the holding might prefer to raise debt to a point where it would also default when subsidiaries are insolvent. After accounting for standard controls, we find that holding companies in Italian pyramids have higher leverage than subsidiaries and that the cash-flow share of the entrepreneur in the subsidiary does not play a significant role. These findings are consistent with the implications of our model of group capital structure.
Опубликовано на портале: 14-06-2006Mark G. Brown Euromoney. 2005. Vol. 36. No. 433. P. 29-29.
This article focuses on the leveraged buyout (LBO) market in Europe. Two contrasting European leveraged buyouts have shown how the leveraged finance market is developing in 2005. While ideas like Cablecom's refinancing and Greece's first ever LBO are being funded largely in the bond markets, the secondary buyout of German motorway service station chain Tank & Rast backed the trend and used senior debt. Allianz Capital Partners, Lufthansa and funds advised by Apax Partners agreed to sell their shares in Tank & Rast to British private-equity house Terra Firma Capital Partners in November 2004. Terra had been looking at the acquisition for more than a year. Meanwhile,JP Morgan and Deutsche Bank are acting as arrangers and bookrunners on the LBO of 80.87% in Telecom Italia's Greek mobile operator Tim Hellas Communications.
Опубликовано на портале: 16-06-2006Susana Álvarez, Víctor M. González Journal of Business Finance & Accounting. 2005. Vol. 32. No. 1/2. P. 325-350.
Academic research into firms that have gone public has focused on the study of two anomalies: initial underpricing and long-run underperformance. We analyse Spanish Initial Public Offerings to provide additional evidence on the long-run performance of IPOs and its relationship with initial underpricing. Results reveal the existence of negative long-run abnormal stock returns, in line with the international literature. Long-run performance presents a positive relationship with underpricing and the volume of funds obtained in seasoned offerings, in consonance with the predictions of,and.
The Effect of Forward Markets on the Debt-Equity Mix of Investor Portfolios and the Optimal Capital Structure of Firms. [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 14-06-2006Sheridan Titman Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis. 1985. Vol. 20. No. 1. P. 19-28.
This paper demonstrates that the various market imperfections that have been suggested to explain observed portfolio choices and capital structures can be circumvented if securities (e.g., options) can be traded that simulate forward contracts on stock. It is shown that if the risk-adjusted returns to bondholders exceed the returns to stockholders (to reflect personal tax differences) tax-exempt investors will prefer a combination of these synthetic forward purchases and corporate bonds to purchasing stock directly. They will not, as has been suggested, include stock in their portfolios for diversification purposes when they can alternatively purchase securities that simulate forward contracts. It is also shown that firms that can sell synthetic forward positions on their own stock can essentially guarantee that sufficient funds will be available to meet their bond obligations. This gives firms the opportunity to increase their debt levels without increasing the possibility of bankruptcy and the corresponding administrative and agency costs.