Всего статей в данном разделе : 37
Опубликовано на портале: 26-11-2007Michael Lechner, Conny Wunsch Kiel Working Papers. 2007. No. 1308.
We investigate the effects of the most important East German active labour market programmes on the labour market outcomes of their participants. The analysis is based on a large and informative individual database coming from administrative data sources. Using matching methods, we find that over a horizon of 2.5 years after programme start the programmes fail to increase the employment chances of their participants in the regular labour market. However, the programmes may have other effects for their participants that may be considered important in the especially difficult situation experienced in the East German labour market.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2007Friedhelm Pfeiffer, Karsten Reuß Center for European Economic Research Discussion Paper. 2007. No. 07-015.
In this study, we try to connect the economic literature on human capital formation with findings from neurobiology and psychology on early childhood development and self-regulation. Our basic framework for assessing the distribution of agespecific returns to investment in skills is an elaboration of the model of skill formation from Cunha, Heckman et al. (2006) over the life cycle. Our simulation based evidence illustrates the cumulative and synergetic nature of skill formation, the skill multiplier and the shaping role early childhood has for human capital formation, growth and inequality.
Are Shirking and Leisure Substitutable? An Empirical Test of Efficiency Wages Based on Urban Economic Theory [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 28-10-2007Stephen L. Ross, Yves Zenou Department of Economics University of Connecticut:Working papers. 2006. No. 2006-21.
Recent theoretical work has examined the spatial distribution of unemployment using the efficiency wage model as the mechanism by which unemployment arises in the urban economy. This paper extends the standard efficiency wage model in order to allow for behavioral substitution between leisure time at home and effort at work. In equilibrium, residing at a location with a long commute affects the time available for leisure at home and therefore affects the trade-off between effort at work and risk of unemployment. This model implies an empirical relationship between expected commutes and labor market outcomes, which is tested using the Public Use Microdata sample of the 2000 U.S. Decennial Census. The empirical results suggest that efficiency wages operate primarily for blue collar workers, i.e. workers who tend to be in occupations that face higher levels of supervision. For this subset of workers, longer commutes imply higher levels of unemployment and higher wages, which are both consistent with shirking and leisure being substitutable.
Опубликовано на портале: 25-10-2007Xenia Matschke Public Choice. 2003. No. 114. P. 103-135.
In this article, the possibility of Nordhaus political wage cycles in the West German public services during 1961–1995 is investigated. Since wage negotiations are centralized, one might expect a systematically higher wage increase shortly before a federal election. A regression of wage increases from 30 consecutive public sector pay contracts is run on an election variable and several additional explanatory variables. The null of no election influence is rejected for worker wage increases. The estimated increase in wages due to an imminent election is predicted to be in the range of 2.5 to 3 percentage points.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-09-2003Jude Browne, Simon Deakin, Frank Wilkinson
This article throws some light to the links between the economic notion of 'capabilities' and the judicial concept of social rights. The Authors begin by revisiting TH Marshall's classic analysis of social rights and their ambiguous relationship to the market. J. Browne et al examine how far Amartya Sen's Capabilities Approach provides a framework for locating social rights within a market setting. They argue that Sen's non-dogmatic, context-orientated approach to defining the meaning of capabilities offers a viable way forward for thinking about the current tension between market rights and social rights in the European Union. This argument is illustrated by reference to the role played by mechanisms of corporate social responsibility in promoting gender equality.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-09-2003Jacob Mincer
Skill differentials in wages declined in the 1970's and rose in the 1980's, but aggregate wage inequality grew throughout the period. This divergence remains a puzzle in recent studies of U.S. wage inequality. In this paper the sometimes divergent paths of intergroup and intra-group inequality are explained by the human capital approach.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-10-2007Jane Humphries World Bank Economic Review. 2003. Vol. 17. No. 2. P. 175 - 196.
This article overviews the extent and settings of child labor in Western Europe and the United States in the past. Historians must rely on a quantitative record that is patchy and difficult to interpret. As a result, it may not be possible to say with confidence whether the era of proto-industry or the early factories saw the high-water mark of child labor, and the nature and time path of decline remains debated. Nonetheless, broad trends emerge that put the experience of today's poor countries into historical perspective and provide an empirical backdrop for the analysis in the second and third parts of the article, which seek to explain why child labor increased during industrialization and declined thereafter
Cognitive Ability and Paternalism [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 04-11-2004Saint-Paul Gilles IZA Discussion Papers. 2002. No. 609.
This paper analyses the welfare effects of price restrictions on private contracting in a world where agents have a limited cognitive ability. People compute the costs and benefits of entering a transaction with an error. The government knows the distribution of true costs and benefits as well as that of errors. By imposing constraints on transaction prices, the government eliminates some that are on average inefficient--because the price signals that one of the parties has typically grossly overestimated its benefit from participation. This policy may increase aggregate welfare even though some of the transactions being blocked are actually efficient. The paper also studies the extent to which the use of private consultants with sufficient intelligence by people with limited intelligence may dominate government regulation.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-09-2003Richard Blundell, Pierre-Andre Chiappori, Thierry Magnac, Costas Meghir
Описывается модель семейного предложения труда (вариант модели коллективного предложения труда, описанной в 1988 г. в работах П.- А. Чиаппори) для анализа индивидуальных потребительских предпочтений и распределения ресурсов внутри домохозяйства. Потребительские предпочтения и предпочтения в выборе статуса занятости (предлагать рабочую силу на рынке труда или не предлагать) рассматриваются не в качестве индивидуальных, а в качестве семейных. Авторы последовательно доказывают, что зная правила участия на рынке труда обоих супругов, можно определить их индивидуальные потребительские предпочтения и схему внутрисемейного распределения ресурсов. Дается пример использования модели на данных эмпирического исследования бездетных семейных пар в возрасте от 22 до 60 лет, проведенного в Англии в 1978-1993 гг. По мнению авторов, предложенная модель полезна также в исследованиях семейного потребления благ и домашнего производства.
Опубликовано на портале: 26-10-2004Björn Gustafsson, Mats Johansson Works of Department of Social Work. 1996. Vol. 3. No. 1.
The development of earnings inequality and the earnings gender gap is analysed among full-time, full-year workers in Sweden using an additively decomposable inequality index. Earnings inequality is found to first decrease then increase and the earnings gender gap is found to move similarly. The results show that the changed earnings gap has some importance for the changed inequality. However, most of the changes were due to changes in inequality within the categories male and female. Between one tenth and one fifth of the inequality in particular segments of the labour market would be eliminated if its gender gap were to be totally eliminated. If the gender gap were to be eliminated in specific segments of the labour market, to what extent would earning inequality decrease?
Опубликовано на портале: 03-11-2004Marco Francesconi, Edmund S. Phelps, Gylfi Zoega, J. Michael Orszag ISER working papers. 1999. No. 1999-02.
We show how changes in the educational composition of the labour force affect both the level and the behaviour over time of aggregate unemployment series. We also demonstrate that if it had not been for such changes, the U.S. unemployment series would look European since the within-group unemployment series all have that same appearance. We derive a natural-rate model of unemployment for two education groups, providing microfoundations for inter-group differences in wages and unemployment, and evaluate its plausibility in light of microeconomic evidence.
Опубликовано на портале: 01-09-2003Andreu Mas-Colell, Pradeep Dubey, Martin Shubik
The paper investigates the conditions under which an abstractly given market game will have the property that if there is a continuum of traders then every noncooperative equilibrium is Walrasian. In other words, we look for a general axiomatization of Cournots well-known result. Besides, some convexity, continuity, and nondegeneracy hypothesis, the crucial axioms are: anonymity (i.e., the names of traders are irrelevant to the market) and aggregation (i.e. the net trade received by a trader depends only on his own action and the mean action of all traders). It is also shown that the same axioms do not guarantee efficiency is there is only a finite number of traders. Some examples are discussed and a notion of strict noncooperative equilibrium for anonymous games is introduced.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-12-2002Marthe Nyssens, Bruno Van der Linden
This paper is motivated by empirical observations on popular-economy firms (PEFs) in the informal sector of Santiago de Chile. These are labor-managed firms embedded in popular milieu where cooperation between their members plays a central role. This paper develops a (partial equilibrium) microeconomic theory of PEFs. First, it endogeneizes the level of cooperation between the workers. Second, it develops a static and a dynamic model to analyze whether embeddedness influences the behavior of the PEF. Embeddedness is assumed to be captured by three different characteristics suggested by the empirical observations. Most of them influence the employment and income levels in the PEF.
Explaining Rising Wage Inequality: Explorations with a Dynamic General Equilibrium Model of Labor Earnings with Heterogeneous Agents [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 05-02-2007John H. Cochrane, Christopher R. Taber, Lance Lochner NBER Working Paper Series. 1998. No. 6384.
This paper develops and estimates an overlapping generations general equilibrium model of labor earnings, skill formation and physical capital accumulation with heterogeneous human capital. The model analyzes both schooling choices and post-school on-the-job investment in skills in a framework in which different schooling levels index different skills. A key insight in the model is that accounting for the distinction between skill prices and measured wages is important for analyzing the changing wage structure, as they often move in different directions. New methods are developed and applied to estimate the demand for unobserved human capital and to determine the substitution relationships in aggregate technology among skills and capital. We estimate skill-specific human capital accumulation equations that are consistent with the general equilibrium predictions of the model. Using our estimates, we find that a model of skill-biased technical change with a trend estimated from our aggregate technology is consistent with the central feature of rising wage equality measured by the college-high school wage differential and by the standard deviation of log earnings over the past 15 years. Immigration of low skill workers contributes little to rising wage inequality. When the model is extended to account for the enlarged cohorts of the Baby Boom, we find that the same parameter estimates of the supply functions for human capital that are used the explain the wage history of the last 15 years also explain the last 35 years of wage inequality as documented by Katz and Murphy (1992).
Food Protection for Sale [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 25-10-2007Rigoberto A. Lopez, Xenia Matschke University of Connecticut, Department of Economics Working Paper. 2005. No. 2005-13R.
This article tests the Protection for Sale (PFS) model using detailed data from U.S. food processing industries from 1978 to 1992 under alternative import demand specifications. All empirical results support the PFS model predictions and previous empirical work qualitatively. Although welfare weights are very sensitive to import demand specification, a surprising result is that we obtain weights between 2.6 and 3.6 for domestic welfare using import slopes or elasticities derived from domestic demand and supply functions. In contrast, results based on import slopes or elasticities from directly specified import demands (including the Armington model) yield the usual, unrealistically large estimates for the domestic welfare weight. We contend that the latter empirical paradox arises mainly because the explanatory variables tend to be extremely large for industries with low import ratios and/or low estimated elasticities or slopes resulting from relatively volatile import prices. The results with derived import parameters point to a much stronger role of campaign contributions within the PFS model than previously found. They also suggest that the commonly-used Armington estimates may not be appropriate for estimating the PFS model.