Всего статей в данном разделе : 257
Equal opportunity? The role of legislation and public policies in women's employment in China (Равные возможности? Роль законодательства и публичной политики в обеспечении трудовой занятости женщин в Китае) [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2004Fang Lee Cooke Women in Management Review. 2001. Vol. 16. No. 7.
Reviews the positive role of the state in promoting women's employment since the founding of Communist China in 1949. Identifies patterns of gender inequality which exist throughout the process of employment such as recruitment and retirement. Against this backcloth, analyses major reasons for the occurrence of this gender discrimination, which range from inadequate social security for childbearing and ineffective legislative monitoring mechanisms to gender bias in the employment legislation itself. Concludes that recent radical economic and social reforms in China have disrupted the context within which a level of equal opportunity has been achieved in the past few decades and demands a new legal framework under which greater equality between men and women in employment can be achieved.
Establishing the Priority of Labor [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002G.Paul Peterson, James A. Buss International Journal of Social Economics. 1998. Vol. 25. No. 1112. P. 1699-1710(12) .
Pope John Paul II and the social teachings of the Catholic Church emphasize that labor should not be treated as an instrument in the production process. Rather justice requires that labor be given priority over capital. The reasons for this priority are explained. Several labor market conditions are examined to show that generally the priority of labor over capital does not exist. These conditions include unemployment, unjust wages, poverty, suppression of union activities, lack of participatory management, and discrimination against women and foreign workers. The works of Pope John Paul II are examined to discern the causes of these injustices and possible remedies for them. The roles played by the indirect employer, structures of evil, the ownership of economic resources, as well as the error of economism are considered.
Опубликовано на портале: 04-11-2004Hedwig Beitrag Prey, Bernd Fitzenberger Oxford Economic Papers. 2000. No. 52. P. 497-520.
Поддержка профессиональной переподготовки стала очень важным инструментом политики на рынке труда в Восточной Германии. В данной работе делается попытка оценить влияние профессиональной переподготовки, финансируемой за счет доходов общественного сектора вне фирм, на заработную плату и занятость. После описания развития рынка труда в Восточной Германии, авторы переходят к описанию проблемы оценки. После этого описывается теоретическая модель участия в профессиональной переподготовке, занятости и заработной плате. Принимая во внимание эффекты отбора до участия, исследование в основном выявляет положительное, хотя и только частично значимое влияние в длительном периоде на занятость или заработную плату.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003Andres Erosa, Luisa Fuster, Diego Restuccia Review of Economic Dynamics. 2002. Vol. 5. No. 4. P. 856-891.
A striking observation of the U.S. and other labor markets is the weak position of women in terms of job attachment, employment, and earnings relative to men. We develop a model of fertility and labor market decisions to study the impact of fertility on gender differences in labor turnover, employment, and wages. In our framework, individuals search for jobs and accumulate general (experience) and specific (tenure) human capital when they work. They can also increase their wage by moving to a job of higher quality. Labor market decisions (e.g., job acceptance and job mobility) may differ across genders: females that give birth may decide to interrupt their labor market attachment in order to enjoy the value of staying at home with their children. The model economy is successfully calibrated to match aggregate statistics in terms of fertility, employment, and wages. We find that fertility decisions generate important gender differences in turnover rates, with long lasting effects in employment and wages. These differences in labor turnover account for almost all the U.S. gender wage gap that is attributed to labor market experience by Blau and Kahn (2000, Journal of Labor Economics 15(1), 142). The model also implies a very small role of tenure capital in accounting for wage differences between males and females (gender gap), and between females with and without children (family gap).
Опубликовано на портале: 30-01-2003Masahiro Abe, Souichi Ohta Journal of the Japanese and International Economies. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 4. P. 437-464.
Throughout the 1990s, and particularly in the mid- to late-1990s, the Japanese employment situation went from bad to worse. We investigate the causes of rising unemployment in Japan, using data on individual workers from the Special Survey of the Labor Force between 1988 and 1999. This research focuses on the effect of labor market segmentation by industry on labor flows. Our findings reveal that unemployment in the construction industry and, more recently, in the service industry has contributed greatly to the national unemployment rate. We also find that most successful job transfers occur within the same industry, even though workers may experience some periods of unemployment. Finally, our results show that labor market conditions in each industry affect the probability that a worker will fall into unemployment as well as the probability that an unemployed worker will find new employment. These findings suggest that the Japanese labor market is segmented by industry and this segmentation contributed to the worsening unemployment in Japan.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-10-2003Dong-Sook S. Gills Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 2002. Vol. 581. No. 1. P. 106-120.
Globalization of production represents a new organization of production processes, accompanied by technological advances and neoliberal ideology, which emphasizes the separation of politics from economics. Emanating from these changes, labor relations are being altered, in particular by world trends of the flexibilization and feminization of labor. Women's labor constitutes a foundation of the international competitiveness of most Asian countries. The forces of economic globalization expose women in Asia to diverse mechanisms of exploitation in complex ways. There is no single pattern but rather an array of complex ways in which gender hierarchy, national capital, foreign capital, and the state negotiate and adapt to globalization. Women's social movements have been part of the social actions that have strengthened the counter-hegemonic movements against capital-led economic globalization. Women's labor is an important social force that can resist neoliberal global trends and contribute to an alternative globalization based on democratization and greater social inclusion.
Group Wage Curves [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 04-11-2004Timothy J. Bartik W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research: Staff Working Papers. 2002. No. 00-63.
Using panel data on U.S. MSAs, this paper estimates how a typical MSAs wages of different demographic groups, and prices, are affected by overall MSA unemployment, the distribution of unemployment among different groups, and national prices and wages. MSA unemployment has strong effects on MSA wages and prices, but the distribution of unemployment among different groups has weak effects on wages and prices. Using these estimates, simulations show that targeting high-unemployment groups for unemployment reductions will not reduce wage or price inflation pressures. The estimates also show that the effects of MSA unemployment on prices and disadvantaged groups wages are greater (in absolute value) at lower unemployment rates. As a result, simulations using these estimates suggest that national unemployment can be reduced with less inflationary pressures by targeting unemployment reductions at MSAs with high unemployment.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-09-2003Amparo Castelly, Rafael Domenech The Economic Journal. 2002. Vol. 112. No. 478. P. 187-200.
This paper provides new measures of human capital inequality for a broad panel of countries. Taking attainment levels from Barro and Lee (2001), we compute Gini coefficients and the distribution of education by quintiles for 108 countries over five-year intervals from 1960 to 2000. Using this new cross-country data on human capital inequality two main conclusions are obtained. First, most countries in the world have tended to reduce the inequality in human capital distribution. Second, human capital inequality measures provide more robust results than income inequality measures in the estimation of standard growth and investment equations.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Robert Drago, Gerald T. Garvey
Recent advances in incentive theory stress the multi- dimensional nature of agent effort and particularly the case where workers can improve the performance of others through `helping' efforts. This paper provides a simple model of an agent's incentive to help depending on the compensation package, the cost of monitoring, and the allocation of tasks. We then analyze the determinants of reported helping efforts within workgroups for a sample of Australian workers. As expected, workers are less likely to help one another when promotion incentives are strong. Subsidiary results are consistent with our `contest' interpretation of this finding and not consistent with `gift exchange' or other variants of the efficiency wage hypothesis. Also as predicted, a wide range of job tasks amplifies the negative effect of promotional incentives, while monitoring of help mitigates the negative effect. We find an unexpected positive effect of piece rates on helping effort for long-term employees which we show is consistent with repeated game effects between workers. These considerations do not overturn our findings about the effects of tournaments.
Опубликовано на портале: 05-02-2007Joseph G. Altonji Journal of Political Economy. 1986. Vol. 94. No. 3. P. 176-215.
The sensitivity of the supply of labor to intertemporal variation in the wage is an important issue in macroeconomics, the analysis of social security and pensions, and the study of life-cycle patterns of work. This paper explores two approaches to the measurement of intertemporal substitution that have appeared in the literature. The first approach is to use consumption to control for wealth and unobserved expectations about future wages in the labor supply equation. The second approach is to estimate a first-difference equation for hours in which labor supply from the previous period serves as a control for wealth and wage expectations. The results indicate that the intertemporal substitution elasticity for married men is positive but small.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Lisa M. Powell Journal of Human Resources. 2002. Vol. 37. No. 1. P. 106-128.
This paper examines the impact of childcare prices and wage rates on the joint employment and childcare mode (center, sitter, relative, and husband) choice decisions of married mothers by estimating both a mixed logit and universal logit choice model. Data are drawn from the 1988 Canadian National Child Care Survey and the 1988 Labour Market Activity Survey. The estimation results show that wages have a positive impact on the probability of choosing any of the working states and that childcare prices for center, sitter, and relative care reduce the probability of working and using each respective mode of care. Sensitivity analyses reveal that the wage elasticity for employment is fairly robust across model specifications, while the own-price elasticity of childcare is sensitive to model specification, differing identifying assumptions in the estimation of childcare price equations, and sample selection. The simulation results show that differences exist in the degree to which government subsidies in the form of wage subsidies, targeted childcare subsidies, or unconditional childcare subsidies, impact on labor supply decisions and decisions to substitute across different modes of care by those mothers already in the labor market.
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002John J. Piderit International Journal of Social Economics. 1998. Vol. 25. No. 1112. P. 1684-1698.
In his economic writings John Paul II asserts the importance of placing the human person at the center of deliberations concerning the economy. Neoclassical economists show that free trade enhances the efficiency of society. However, a byproduct of free trade is greater competition, as countries and firms adjust to the introduction of new products and processes of production, made possible through technological innovation. Neoclassical economists assume that workers will move to where new jobs develop. In many cases, however, this means that they impose burdens on their family and become more distant from friends. Each human person establishes bonds with other persons; through such family bonds of friendship a person becomes more human. This essay explores the tension between greater productive efficiency and a desire to maintain and enhance friendships. Never merely objective analysts, neoclassical economists have strong convictions concerning dynamic efficiency, while consumers have convictions about friendship. These two sets of convictions have to be reconciled. In order for policy makers to assess the true costs of free trade, mobility measures must be developed, and the neoclassical model must be modified to incorporate geographical stability as a significant factor for consumers.
Опубликовано на портале: 04-11-2004Martin N. Baily, Eric J. Bartelsman, John Haltiwanger Review of Economics and Statistics. 2001. Vol. 83. No. 1. P. 420-433.
A longstanding issue in empirical economics is the behavior of average labor productivity over the business cycle. This paper provides new insights into the cyclicality of aggregate labor productivity by examining the cyclical behavior of productivity at the plant level as well as the role of reallocation across plants over the cycle. We find that plant-level productivity is even more procyclical than aggregate productivity, because short-run reallocation yields a countercyclical contribution to labor productivity. At the plant level, we find that cyclicality of productivity varies systematically with long-run employment growth. Over the course of the cycle, plants that are long-run downsizers exhibit significantly greater procyclicality of productivity than do long-run upsizers. When we control for the direction of a cyclical shock, we find that the fall in productivity from an adverse cyclical shock for long-run downsizers is significantly larger in magnitude than is the fall in productivity from an equivalent adverse cyclical shock for long-run upsizers. We argue that these findings raise questions about one of the most popular explanations of procyclical productivity: changing factor utilization over the cycle.
Labour Government: change in employment law (Трудовое правительство: изменения в трудовом праве) [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2004John Gennard Employee Relations. 1998. Vol. 20. No. 1.
Examines the changes in the UK legal framework, surrounding the employment relations system, to be introduced by the new Labour Government elected in May 1997. Discusses how these changes are designed to improve competitiveness, establish fairness at work, provide minimum employment standards and encourage a more flexible workforce.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-11-2004Anthony B. Atkinson
This paper is concerned with an issue that is both an intellectual puzzle and of key importance for contemporary policy-making. The issue can be simply stated. Are labour market reforms, and scaling back the welfare state, complementary or substitute economic policies? Do countries need to do both, or can they choose? If there is a choice, how should the balance be struck?