Всего статей в данном разделе : 257
Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2002B. McKenna Asia Pacific Business Review. 2000. Vol. 7. Special Issue 1 . P. 71-104.
This contribution deconstructs globalization using a critical discourse method. Taking Australia as its case study, the essay argues that globalization must be seen within the context of hypercapitalism and the unchallenged hegemony of neo-classical economics and neo-liberal politics. The Australian experience, it is argued, shows that trade unions should refuse to be incorporated into this hegemony presented as technocratic alchemy. In fact, deconstruction reveals that globalist claims rest upon highly contestable tautological claims. This essay briefly describes Australian political economy 1983-96 when the Labor government, in an 'accord' with the trade union movement, embraced free-market globalism; critically deconstructs the ideological features that underlie the technocratic claims made about the benefits of globalization; and argues for a resurgent unionism and traditional labourism that dialectically challenges the inequitable and destructive features of contemporary hypercapitalism.
Market Forces and Sex Discrimination [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Judith K. Hellerstein, David Neumark, Kenneth R. Troske Journal of Human Resources. 2002. Vol. 37 . No. 2 . P. 353-380.
The authors report new evidence on the existence of sex discrimination in wages and whether competitive market forces act to reduce or eliminate discrimination. Specifically, they use plant- and firm-level data to examine the relationships between profitability, growth and ownership changes, product market power, and the sex composition of a plant's or firm's workforce. Their strongest finding is that among plants with high levels of product market power, those that employ relatively more women are more profitable. No such relationship exists for plants with apparently low levels of market power. This is consistent with sex discrimination in wages in the short run in markets where plants have product market power. The authors also examine evidence on the longer-run effects of market forces on discrimination, asking whether discriminatory employers with market power are punished over time through lower growth than non-discriminatory employers, or whether discriminatory employers are bought out by non-discriminators. There was found little evidence that this occurs over a five-year period, as growth and ownership changes for plants with market power are generally not significantly related to the sex composition of a plant's workforce.
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2004Joseph A. Belizzi, Ronald W. Hasty Journal of Organizational Change Management. 2000. Vol. 13. No. 5.
Presents the idea that the "Aubry" law context, which concerns the reorganization of working time, constitutes an encouragement to decentralize the collective negotiation. Introduced in June 1998, this mechanism represents an opportunity to observe innovative negotiation modes and the construct of organizations' models. These models aim to associate the principles of Taylorism with the increasing need for flexibility. Through negotiation cases, the authors observe the manner in which the social partners build satisfactory compromises regarding work and the organization of working time. Such processes show the ability of employees to participate in organizational constructs and their creativity. The empirical observations illustrate the debate on the renewal of the Taylorian approach for organizations. Historically, in France, the action of trade union organizations has been deeply rooted in the protest against the Taylorian model; today the union movement constitutes, in our understanding, one phase of professional relations in the reshaping process of the Taylorian model of organization.
Part-time Workers in the Multiple Retail Sector: Small Change from Employment Protection Legislation? (Временные работники в сфере розничной торговли: влияет ли на них хоть как-то законодательство о защите занятости?) [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2004Alison Balchin Employee Relations. 1994. Vol. 16. No. 7.
Draws on a small research study undertaken in the retail industry, providing a very timely consideration of the choices and circumstances of those who work on a part-time basis. Considers the reasons given by workers for choosing part-time work, the costs involved and the extent to which part-time workers are aware of these when making their decision. The research considers the role of trade unions in enhancing awareness of legal entitlements in view of the recent House of Lords ruling.
Опубликовано на портале: 03-10-2003Devajyoti Deka Journal of Urban Affairs. 2002. Vol. 24. No. 3. P. pp. 333-352.
In the context of recent welfare reform efforts, authors have examined strategies for attracting jobs to inner cities, dispersing innercity residents to suburban jobgrowth areas, and creating transportation connections between inner cities and suburban jobgrowth areas. However, little has been done to estimate the extent of potential commute of nonworkers who are expected to become active workers as a result of welfare reform. This study attempts to predict the extent of nonworkers commute by using modeling techniques employed in labor economics. Policy implications of the empirical findings are discussed and an observations of some further ways of thinking can be find in the conclusion.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003Devajyoti Deka Journal of Urban Affairs. 2002. Vol. 24. No. 3/4. P. 333-352.
In the context of recent welfare reform efforts, researchers have examined strategies for attracting jobs to inner cities, dispersing innercity residents to suburban jobgrowth areas, and creating transportation connections between inner cities and suburban jobgrowth areas. However, little has been done to estimate the extent of potential commute of nonworkers who are expected to become active workers as a result of welfare reform. This study attempts to predict the extent of nonworkers commute by using modeling techniques employed in labor economics. Data from the 1995 Nationwide Transportation Survey are utilized. Conforming to theoretical premises and logical expectations, I estimate that mean commute time of nonworkers is likely to be substantially lower than those currently working. Policy implications of the empirical findings are discussed.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-09-2003Devajyoti Deka Journal of Urban Affairs. 2002. Vol. 24. No. 3. P. 333-352.
Researchers have examined strategies for attracting jobs to inner cities, dispersing innercity residents to suburban jobgrowth areas, and creating transportation connections between inner cities and suburban jobgrowth areas. However, little has been done to estimate the extent of potential commute of nonworkers who are expected to become active workers as a result of welfare reform. This study attempts to predict the extent of nonworkers commute by using modeling techniques employed in labor economics. Data from the 1995 Nationwide Transportation Survey are utilized. Conforming to theoretical premises and logical expectations, the author estimates that mean commute time of nonworkers is likely to be substantially lower than those currently working. Policy implications of the empirical findings are discussed.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2003Murat F. Iyigun International Economic Review. 1999. Vol. 40. No. 3. P. 697 - 710.
This paper examines the role of public education in determining intergenerational economic mobility. It considers a model in which education is free and admission to schools is competitive. The results indicate that for mobility to increase during the process of development, the share of resources devoted to public education needs to be large enough to offset the relative advantage of having educated parents in academic attainment.
Опубликовано на портале: 23-06-2005Daniel S. Treisman, Владимир Ефимович Гимпельсон, Галина Алексеевна Монусова Экономическая социология. 2001. Т. 2. № 5. С. 21-47.
Public employment grew surprisingly fast in Russia during the 1990s, at a time when total employment was falling. Most of this growth occurred in the country's 89 regions, and rates varied among them. This paper seeks to explain this variation. Using panel data for 78 regions over 1992-1998 we test several hypotheses. We show that the increase in the share of public employment in total employment has been greatest where unemployment was highest and growing the fastest, in ethnically defined territorial units, and in regions which received larger federal transfers and loans. The paradoxical growth of public employment in Russia appears less a result of ignorant or irresolute central management than a perverse outgrowth of the competitive game of federal politics, in which regional governors use public sector workers as "hostages" to extract transfers.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-09-2003Jianguo Wang, Xiaokai Yang Journal of Comparative Economics. 1996. Vol. 23. No. 1. P. 20-37.
This article investigates the implications of pursuit of relative utility for the equilibrium level of division of labor and trade dependence. Jianguo Wang's ("Pursuit of Relative Economic Standing," Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Economics, Monash University, 1993) approach to modeling pursuit of relative economic standing is applied to Xiaokai Yang's framework with consumer-producers, economies of specialization, and transaction costs (Yang, Xiaokai, J. Develop. Econom. 34, 1-2:199-222, Nov. 1990) in order to investigate the relationship between the pursuit of relative utility, transaction efficiency, and the level of division of labor. It is found that a stronger desire for relative utility has positive productivity implications and positive effects on the development of the division of labor if it narrows the differential between preferences for different goods or if it reduces the desire for a variety of a person's productive activities. That is to say, the consumption of relative position may or may not generate positive effects, depending on specific conditions.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-06-2008Sherwin Rosen, Edward Lazear №7-8, 9.. 1981. Т. 89. № 5. С. 841-864.
This paper analyzes compensation schemes which pay according to an individual's ordinal rank in an organization rather than his output level. When workers are risk neutral, it is shown that wages based upon rank induce the same efficient allocation of resources as an incentive reward scheme based on individual output levels. Under some circumstances, risk-averse workers actually prefer to be paid on the basis of rank. In addition, if workers are heterogeneous inability, low-quality workers attempt to contaminate high-quality firms, resulting in adverse selection. However, if ability is known in advance, a competitive handicapping structure exists which allows all workers to compete efficiently in the same organization.
Relevance of Canadian labour law to US firms operating in Canada (Применимость канадского трудового права к американским фирмам, работающим в Канаде) [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2004Steven E. Abraham International Journal of Manpower. 1997. Vol. 18. No. 8.
As US firms expand into Canada, it becomes necessary for them to be aware of Canadian law governing labour and employment. Unlike what many might think, the laws in the two countries are substantially different. Further, the effects of these differences have been demonstrated empirically. Considers the differences between US and Canadian labour law in seven areas: certification procedures; first contract arbitration; new technologies; strike replacements; successorship; employee participation programmes and union security. Discusses the effects of the laws in these areas.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003James G. Scoville The American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 2002. Vol. 61. No. 3. P. 713-723.
Recent events have focused attention on international labor standards, with some special attention being paid to child labor. The diverse forms of child labor are often merged into one: a stereotype of children sewing Nikes, although the situation varies widely from that model. Certain forms of child labor are not substitutable by adult labor; others are more appropriately modeled as a form of apprenticeship. A simple family utility function helps elucidate the reasons. The ultimate purpose of the paper is to challenge the policy ambiguitywe cannot tell whether restrictions on child labor are good or badthat was a result in Basu and Vans earlier (1998) modeling of child labor.
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002Cara L. Brown Feminist Economics. 1998. Vol. 4. No. 2. P. 89-95(7) .
In attempting to ascertain various impacts on labor market outcomes using categories such as gender, race, ethnicity, and physical ability, a void exists with respect to sexual orientation. Whereas heterosexism and homophobia can explain some of the reasons for the void, the inability to collect data randomly about homosexuals' experiences in the labor market nullifies the basic tenet of all scientific research-random samples. A unique approach is presented which looks at income data for nonrelatives of the same sex, ages 45 to 64, living together in Canada, as a first attempt at comparing same-sex and opposite-sex genders, and is used to demonstrate the contribution of recognizing sexual orientation to economic questions. Other examples based on well-known debates about female labor participation and gender wage gaps are presented to evaluate the usefulness of studying economics recognizing sexual orientation. The need for such study is acknowledged as a measure of the inclusiveness of the economics discipline.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007John DiNardo, David Card Journal of Labor Economics. 2002. Vol. 20. No. 4. P. 733-783.
The recent rise in wage inequality is usually attributed to skill-biased technical change (SBTC), associated with new computer technologies. We review the evidence for this hypothesis, focusing on the implications of SBTC for overall wage inequality and for changes in wage differentials between groups. A key problem for the SBTC hypothesis is that wage inequality stabilized in the 1990s despite continuing advances in computer technology; SBTC also fails to explain the evolution of other dimensions of wage inequality, including the gender and racial wage gaps and the age gradient in the return to education.