Всего статей в данном разделе : 257
Опубликовано на портале: 04-11-2004Alison L. Booth, Marco Francesconi, Jeff Frank IZA Discussion Papers. 2000. No. 205.
In Britain about 7% of male employees and 10% of female employees are in temporary jobs. In contrast to much of continental Europe, this proportion has been relatively stable over the 1990s. Using data from the British Household Panel Survey, we find that temporary workers report lower levels of job satisfaction, receive less work-related training, and are less well-paid than their counterparts in permanent employment. However, there is evidence that fixed-term contracts are a stepping stone to permanent work. Women (but not men) who start in fixed-term employment and move to permanent jobs fully catch up to those who start in permanent jobs.
Опубликовано на портале: 04-11-2004K. Mayhew Oxford Review of Economic Policy. 2000. No. 16. P. 1-12.
Быстрые и радикальные изменения на рынке труда в странах с развитой экономикой принесли глобальные последствия для благосостояния и уровня жизни своих граждан. В данном исследовании утверждается, что до сих пор существуют значительные различия в развитии рынков труда и их результатов в различных странах. Тем не менее, имеется ряд общих проблем. Самая важная среди них заключается в том, что происходит с правами людей на работе и как их можно защищать.
Опубликовано на портале: 30-08-2003Arnaldo Camuffo Journal of Management and Governance. 2002. Vol. 6. No. 4. P. 281-294.
Research on Internal Labor Markets (ILMs) has had enormous influence on social sciences since the seminal work by Peter Doeringer and Michael Piore, thirty years ago. This article discusses the past and current contribution of the ILM concept to the development of labor economics, organization theory and human resource management and argues that research on ILMs remains important, despite the changes occurred in the economy. Therefore, a renovated effort of theoretical and field studies is required and desirable in order to reach a better understanding of the efficiency and equity issues the knowledge economy poses to the employment relation. In fact, the emergence of a ``new employment contract'', characterized by less sticky a relation between employer and employees asks for a major re-conceptualization of ILMs that cannot be limited to a diverse, more detailed classification, or to an update of their possible variants. Such re-conceptualization could be linked with the ``new organizational forms literature'', i.e. with that body of research that models organizations as hybrids or networks.
The Correlation between Education and Earnings: The External-Test-not-Content Hypothesis (ETNC) [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 21-10-2007Peter Wiles Higher Education. 1974. Vol. 3. No. 1. P. 43-58.
The Human Capital theory, as ordinarily defined, is a content theory of the economic value of a higher education to its recipient or his employer. But non-vocational higher education offers by definition no such content. So why does it yield a higher income? Various theories are examined: 1) The degree is an external test, vastly expensive to society but very cheap to individual employers; 2) The degree course forms character, and that is a kind of human capital; 3) The degree course exercises the mind, and develops it like a muscle; 4) The degree confers social status; 5) Insistence on a degree, including now vocational degrees, is a restrictive practice by many trade unions. People also seek non-vocational higher education because it is publicly financed. There is a Robbinsian supply curve of higher education facilities. This is profoundly irrational, but all parties react rationally to it. No evidence connecting degree certificates with income could distinguish between Human Capital and most of these other theories. Possible statistical tests are discussed.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Greg Murtough, Matthew Waite
This paper investigates the extent to which employees with a casual employment contract can be viewed as a group with broadly similar personal characteristics and work arrangements. If most casual contract employees are similar, then it is probably valid to make general conclusions about their circumstances. Conversely, the presence of considerable diversity would suggest that generalisations about casual contract employment are inappropriate. This issue is of interest because generalisations are often made about how the welfare of workers has been affected by the rapid increase in casual employees as measured in regular surveys by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS).
The Effects of Human Resource Management Practices on Productivity: A Study of Steel Finishing Lines [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007Giovanna Prennushi, Kathryn L. Shaw, Casey Ichniowski American Economic Review. 1997. Vol. 87. No. 3. P. 291-313.
The authors investigate the productivity effects of innovative employment practices using data from a sample of thirty-six homogeneous steel production lines owned by seventeen companies. The productivity regressions demonstrate that lines using a set of innovative work practices, which include incentive pay, teams, flexible job assignments, employment security, and training, achieve substantially higher levels of productivity than do lines with the more traditional approach, which includes narrow job definitions, strict work rules, and hourly pay with close supervision. Their results are consistent with recent theoretical models which stress the importance of complementarities among work practices.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-09-2003Alan de Brauw, Jikun Huang, Scott Rozelle, Linxiu Zhang, Xudong Zhang Journal of Comparative Economics. 2002. Vol. 30. No. 2. P. 329-353.
This paper contributes to the assessment of China's rural labor markets, while paying attention to whether these markets are developing in a manner conducive to the nation's modernization. According to our household survey, we find that the rapid increase in off-farm employment has continued and accelerated during the late 1990's. Our analysis shows that migration has become the most prevalent off-farm activity, has become dominated by young and better educated workers, has expanded most rapidly in areas that are relatively well-off, and has begun to draw workers from portions of the population, such as women, that earlier had been excluded from participation.
The Interaction Between Labor Market Policy and Monetary Policy: An Analysis of Time Inconsistency Problems. [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Еsa Johansson
This paper studies the interaction between time inconsistency problems in labor market policy and monetary policy. When both policies are discretionary, there is a positive inflation bias, whereas the bias in labor market programs may be either positive or negative. A commitment of labor market programs to zero increases inflation, as compared to the case when both labor market policy and monetary policy are discretionary. Delegation of labor market policy to a liberal labor market board may improve the discretionary outcome, even if labor market programs crowd out regular employment. A conservative central bank always reduces the social loss, even when monetary policy interacts with labor market policy.
Опубликовано на портале: 26-10-2004Richard Anker International Labour Review. 1997. Vol. 136. No. 3.
Occupational segregation by sex is extensive in every region, at all economic development levels, under all political systems, and in diverse religious, social and cultural environments. It is one of the most important and enduring aspects of labour markets around the world. There are several reasons to be concerned with occupational segregation. It is a major source of labour market rigidity and economic inefficiency. Excluding a majority of workers from a majority of occupations, as at present, is wasteful of human resources, increases labour market inflexibility, and reduces an economy's ability to adjust to change. With the globalization of production and intensified international competition, these factors have assumed greater importance. Furthermore, occupational segregation by sex is detrimental to women. It has an important negative effect on how men view women and on how women view themselves. This in turn negatively affects women's status and income and, consequently, many social variables such as mortality and morbidity, poverty and income inequality. The persistence of gender stereotypes also has negative effects on education and training and thus causes gender-based inequalities to be perpetuated into future generations.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003Carsten-Patrick Meier, Reiner Fehn Kyklos. 2002. Vol. 54. No. 4. P. 557-590.
This paper presents a positive model which derives the preferences of entrepreneurs, workers, and investors concerning investor and employment protection. It shows that institutional setups on capital and labor markets might be intertwined by politicoeconomic forces. Multiple politicoeconomic equilibria arise from our model. Some countries especially in continental Europe exhibit a corporatist politicoeconomic equilibrium with a substantial protection of insiders on both, capital and labor markets. The more important money is in political decision-making, the more divided the workforce is, and the more globalized capital markets are, the more likely is a capitalist politicoeconomic equilibrium with little employment and substantial investor protection. Our prediction of a negative crosscountry relationship between different measures of labor market rigidities and of competition on capital markets receives considerable empirical support, thus being potentially important for the current debate concerning structural reforms of labor markets and of corporate governance systems.
The Relative Importance of Employer and Employee Effects on Compensation: A Comparison of France and the United States [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 05-01-2003John M. Abowd Journal of the Japanese and International Economies. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 4. P. 419-436.
Using individual data on compensation, matched with establishment and firm data on performance and inputs, authors compare the French and American pay systems. The compensation measures are decomposed into components related to measured individual characteristics, establishment enterprise effects, and a residual.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007John DiNardo, Jörn-Steffen Pischke Quarterly Journal of Economics. 1997. Vol. 112. No. 1. P. 291-303.
Are the large measured wage differentials for on-the-job computer use a true return to computer skills, or do they just reflect that higher wage workers use computers on their jobs? We examine this issue with three large cross-sectional surveys from Germany. First, we confirm that the estimated wage differential associated with computer use in Germany is very similar to the U.S. differential. Second, we also measure large differentials for on-the-job use of calculators, telephones, pens or pencils, or for those who work while sitting down. We argue that these findings cast some doubt on the literal interpretation of the computer use wage differential as reflecting true returns to computer use or skill.
The Rising College Premium in the Eighties: Return to College or Return to Unobserved Ability? [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 05-02-2007Christopher R. Taber Review of Economic Studies. 2006. Vol. 68. No. 3. P. 665-691.
The changes in the distribution of earnings during the 1980s have been studied extensively. The two most striking characteristics of the decade are (a) a large increase in the college/high school wage gap, and (b) a substantial rise in the variance of wage residuals. While this second phenomenon is typically implicitly attributed to an increase in the demand for unobserved skill, most work in this area fails to acknowledge that this same increase in demand for unobserved skill could drive the evolution of the measured college premium. In its simplest form, if higher ability individuals are more likely to attend college, then the increase in the college wage premium may be due to a increase in the relative demand for high ability workers rather than an increase in the demand for skills accumulated in college. This paper develops and estimates a dynamic programming selection model in order to investigate the plausibility of this explanation. The results are highly suggestive that an increase in the demand for unobserved ability could play a major role in the growing college premium.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007Daron K. Acemoglu, Jörn-Steffen Pischke Journal of Political Economy. 1999. Vol. 107. No. 3. P. 539-572.
In the human capital model with perfect labor markets, firms never invest in general skills and all costs of general training are borne by workers. When labor market frictions compress the structure of wages, firms may pay for these investments. The distortion in the wage structure turns "technologically" general skills into de facto "specific" skills. Credit market imperfections are neither necessary nor sufficient for firm-sponsored training. Since labor market frictions and institutions shape the wage structure, they may have an important impact on the financing and amount of human capital investments and account for some international differences in training practices.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007Daron K. Acemoglu Review of Economic Studies. 1997. Vol. 64. No. 3. P. 445-464.
This paper shows that in a frictional labor market part of the productivity gains from general training will be captured by future employers. As a result, investments in general skills will be suboptimally low, and contrary to the standard theory, part of the costs may be borne by the employers. The paper also demonstrates that the interaction between innovation and training leads to an amplification of this inefficiency and to a multiplicity of equilibria. Workers are more willing to invest in their skills by accepting lower wages today if they expect more firms to innovate and pay them higher wages in the future. Similarly, firms are more willing to innovate when they expect the quality of the future workforce to be higher, thus when workers invest more in their skills.