Всего статей в данном разделе : 257
Uncertainty and the Labor Market. [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Joseph Wesson
This paper describes the labor market in general, and the job search process in particular, as stochastic decay processes. this has implications in terms of information, discrimination and the Natural Rate Hypothesis.
Опубликовано на портале: 24-01-2004Michele Belot, Jan C. van Ours Journal of the Japanese and International Economies. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 4. P. 403-418.
The development of the unemployment rate differs substantially between OECD countries. In this paper we investigate to what extent these differences are related to labor market institutions. In our analysis we use data of eighteen OECD countries over the period 1960-1994 and show that the way in which institutions interact is important.
Опубликовано на портале: 08-12-2002Maria Melkersson
Return to employment, after a period of unemployment, is analyzed for a large sample of Swedish occupationally disabled workers. A piece-wise constant model is used, extended to allow for Gamma heterogeneity. Three competing exits from unemployment are accounted for; regular employment, sheltered/subsidized employment and withdrawal from the labor force. The model is also generalized by accounting for differing search behavior within the population. The hazard rate is constant or slightly increasing over time, for exit to some kind of employment. However, for exit from unemployment by leaving the labor force, the hazard shows quite strong positive duration dependence. Men tend to be more probable to leave unemployment for regular employment, and less probable than women to leave the labor force. The probability of finding regular employment is smallest for workers with psychological disabilities, while high-school or university education as well as previous professional experience increases the hazard rate for regular employment. The heterogeneity due to differing search behavior appears to be at least as important as the Gamma heterogeneity. The estimated probabilities of no search for one particular exit varies, across exits and subsamples, between 0.0 and 0.4.
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002Bertil Holmlund Scandinavian Journal of Economics. 1998. Vol. 100. No. 1. P. 113-141.
A hallmark of modern labor economics is the close interplay between the development of theory, data sources and econometric testing. The evolution of the economic analysis of unemployment insurance provides a good illustration. New theoretical approaches, in particular job-search theory, have inspired a large amount of empirical research, some of it methodologically innovative and most of it highly relevant for economic policy. The paper presents a broad survey and an assessment of the economic analysis of unemployment insurance as it has evolved since the 1970s.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-01-2003David G. Blanchflower Journal of the Japanese and International Economies. 2001. Vol. 15. No. 4. P. 364-402.
The paper studies the labor markets of 23 transition countries from eastern and central EuropeAlbania, Armenia, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, East Germany, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine, and Yugoslavia. It uses new micro-data from a large number of surveys on over 200,000 randomly sampled individuals from these countries for the years 19901997. The microeconometric structure of unemployment regression equations in the nations of eastern Europe appears to be similar to the industrialised west. Estimation of east European wage curves produces a local unemployment elasticity of between 0.1 and 0.3. This is somewhat larger in absolute terms than has been found elsewhere. On a variety of attitudinal measures, eastern Europeans said they were less contented than their western European counterparts. The strongest support for the changes that have occurred in eastern Europe is to be found among men, the young, the most educated, students, and the employed and particularly the self-employed. Support for market reforms is particularly low amongst the unemployed who were found to be particularly unhappy on two well-being measures
Опубликовано на портале: 04-11-2004Kai-Uwe Kuhn, Jorge A. Padilla The Economic Journal. 2002. Vol. 112. No. 479. P. 317-343.
In this paper, we construct a new basis for insider--outsider theory that acknowledges that insiders are typically easier to organise, so that they can delegate their bargaining decisions to a representative if they want to. We show that harassment or discrimination of new workers by the insider work force is neither individually rational nor needed to explain union formation or inefficient hiring decisions. However, we show that there is a strong tendency for overemployment. Unions tend to increase the efficiency of hiring decisions although union contracts will look like inducing underemployment.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-09-2003Raphael W. Bostic Journal of Urban Economics. 1997. Vol. 41. No. 1. P. 38-55.
This paper investigates the stylized empirical facts regarding U.S. urban growth in the 1880s. The author estimates the covariation of empirical proxies for various theorized sources of growth with the growth rates in output, capital, and labor. Results support Barro [Quarterly Journal of Economics, 106, 407-444 (1991)] and others who have found an important role for convergence and other neoclassical mechanisms. Importantly, it is found that externality-based factors impacted growth in inputs but had no direct relationship with productivity growth.
U.S. Earnings Levels and Earnings Inequality: A Review of Recent Trends and Proposed Explanations [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-03-2007Richard J. Murnane, Frank Levy Journal of Economic Literature. 1992. Vol. 30. No. 3. P. 1333-81.
The article studies the U.S. earning trends since 1950 and gives explanations for the inequality in earnings. Both slow growth and increased inequality appear in the comparison of adult male earnings distributions for 1979 and 1987. Trends in women's earnings paint a somewhat brighter picture. Women, like men, have experienced slow hourly wage growth and growing wage inequality. But in terms of annual earnings, both factors have been offset by changes in hours worked. The result is a significant increase in the proportion of women who earn $20,000 a year or more. A combination of shifts in supply and shifts in demand is necessary to explain the observed trends between these groups. A critical aspect of supply shifts was the entry into the labor market of the well-educated baby boom generation. Demand shifts can be characterized as a long-term trend toward increasing relative demand for highly skilled workers. The growth in within group earnings inequality has many potential explanations, but it is not well understood and contains opportunities for future research.
Опубликовано на портале: 24-12-2002David A. Mott Pharmaceutical Research. 2001. Vol. 18. No. 2. P. 224-233.
The objectives of this study were to develop a theoretically derived model of hours worked by pharmacists and estimate the model separately for male and female pharmacists. Methods. A systematic random sample of 1,600 pharmacists from four states was mailed a survey asking about current and past employment information. Two dependent variables were studied: weekly hours worked and annual hours worked. Independent variables were categorized as economic variables (hourly wage rate, other income, total debt) and demographic variables (employment position, age, degree earned, marital status, number of children at home). A two equation multiple regression model was estimated with two-stage least squares regression. Results. A total of 541 pharmacists responded to the survey and data from 442 of the respondents were used in the analysis. Hourly wage rates were negatively associated with weekly hours worked for males. Other income and total debt were significantly negatively and positively associated, respectively, with annual hours worked by female pharmacists. The number of young children at home significantly reduced weekly and annual hours worked by female pharmacists. Female pharmacists earning a Pharm.D. degree worked significantly more hours weekly and annually. Age was significantly negatively associated with male pharmacists weekly and annual hours worked. Conclusions. Economic variables had a relatively small effect on hours worked by male and female pharmacists suggesting that increased wage rates may not increase hours worked. Strategies to increase hours worked by females likely should focus on benefits to help females handle childcare issues.
US labour law reform: a note on the Dunlop debate (Реформа трудового права в США: заметки о дебатах Данлопа) [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2004Philip James Employee Relations. 1995. Vol. 17. No. 6.
Examines the deliberations, conclusions and recommendations of the US Commission on the Future of Worker-Management Relations on the issues of employee involvement and collective bargaining. Draws on the two reports published by the Commission and testimony given by employer and union representatives. Notes the Commission's failure to discuss non-union forms of employee representation. Suggests that little legal change is likely to result and any that does occur is unlikely to be favourable to trade unions.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-02-2003Richard B. Freeman Labour Economics. 1998. Vol. Vol. 5 . No. 1. P. 124.
Обсуждается вопрос о поисках наилучшей модели рынка труда. Анализируется как на самом деле функционируют институты рынка труда, влияют ли эти институты (нормы и правила) на результаты труда; как соотносятся между собой различные, ныне существующие модели устройства рынка труда (для анализа предложено 11 характеристик, связанных с определенными институтами).
Опубликовано на портале: 10-12-2002Lars Behrenz Journal of Applied Economics. 2001. Vol. 4. No. 2. P. 255-278.
In the literature of labor economics we find many examples of studies analyzing job seekers search behavior, but few examples of the corresponding analysis of the recruitment behavior of employers. This paper gives a picture of the recruitment behavior of Swedish employers. The analysis is based on about 800 telephone interviews with employers regarding the last person they had hired. This paper relates the lemons problem in Akerlof with the Spence signaling model, and then it proceeds to relate indices and signals to the hiring behavior of employers. Employers mainly recruit personnel in order to expand a certain activity of their firm. On an average the total recruitment process takes about a month. In first round employers mainly look for job seekers with good education and experience. During the job interview the employer search for persons with professional knowledge, personal engagement and social competence
Опубликовано на портале: 12-07-2007Daron K. Acemoglu, Jörn-Steffen Pischke Quarterly Journal of Economics. 1998. Vol. 113. No. 1. P. 78-118.
This paper offers a theory of training whereby workers do not pay for the general training they receive. The superior information of the current employer regarding its employees' abilities relative to other firms creates ex post monopsony power, and encourages this employer to provide and pay for training, even if these skills are general. The model can lead to multiple equlibria. In one equilibrium quits are endogenously high, and as a result employers have limited monopsony power and provide little training, while in another equilibrium quits are low and training is high. Using microdata on German apprentices, we show that the predictions of our model receive some support from the data.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-02-2003Richard B. Freeman, Wayne J. Diamond British Journal of Industrial Relations. 2002. Vol. 40. No. 3. P. 569-596.
Анализируются возможности использования Интернета для целей рынка труда. Низкие издержки на размещение информации, осуществление коммуникации и взаимодействий в сети Интернет предоставляют профсоюзам большие возможности по улучшению своих услуг и привлечению все большего количества членов - по реанимации профсоюзов в 21 веке. Предлагаются варианты использования Интернет профсоюзами: (1) создание виртуальных профсоюзов, объединяющих меньшинства; (2) улучшение услуг, предоставляемых членам профсоюзов; (3) укрепление демократии в профсоюзах; (4) оказание помощи в производственных конфликтах; (5) укрепление связей с международным трудовым сообществом.
Опубликовано на портале: 12-02-2003Richard B. Freeman Journal of Labor Economics. 1997. Vol. 15. No. 1. P. S140-S166.
Рассматривается предложение труда добровольцев: кто чаще всего становится добровольцем, их социально-демографические характеристики. Анализируется проблема взаимозаменяемости добровольной работы и благотворительных подаяний (предварительно сформулирована гипотеза о взаимозаменяемости этих двух явлений, проведена их формализация в терминах полезности, размера подаяний, количества товаров и свободного времени).