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Банки и банковское дело - это раздел экономической науки, в котором обсуждаются проблемы банковского сектора: зачем он нужен, с какими как функционирует, как осуществляется его регулирование и пр. (подробнее...)

Статьи

Всего статей в данном разделе : 126

Опубликовано на портале: 12-11-2008
Sigurt Vitols Small Business Economics. 1998.  Vol. 10. No. 2. P. 79-91. 
In recent years there has been a vigorous revival of the long-standing debate about the "uniqueness" of German banks. To date little consensus has been reached; while some see few differences between the role of banks in Germany and in other countries, others claim that universal banks' equity shareholdings in and nomination of representatives to the boards of nonfinancial firms are the key institutional features driving the rest of the "German model" of long-term investment in high-quality, internationally competitive manufacturing. This article argues that the uniqueness of the German banking system lies (1) in its unusually high capacity to provide industrial finance in the form of long-term debt capital, and (2) in its avoidance of the "speculative boom-credit crunch" cycle experienced by almost every other advanced industrialized country in the 1980s and early 1990s. These two key characteristics are attributable to a regulatory framework which involves strict prudential regulation, access to long-term refinancing sources, and a federalist form of corporatism. Furthermore, the behavior of German banks must be analyzed within a broader institutional system of economic governance which includes corporatist labor market institutions and a relatively large and modern SME sector.
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Опубликовано на портале: 30-11-2007
Johannes Jaeger, Vanessa Redak Financial Stability Report. 2006.  No. 12. P. 92-103. 
Although the New Basel Capital Accord (Basel II) makes no direct reference to loan pricing and lending terms, it is widely held that Basel II does, in fact, impact on loan pricing. A survey among Austrian banks on loan pricing strategies after Basel II aimed to identify the potential effects of Basel II on loan pricing. This article summarizes and analyzes the results of this survey and their implications for the Austrian lending business. The survey found a significant trend toward risk-adequate pricing. While it is impossible to predict at this point whether banks will eventually successfully implement this strategy, given the competitive environment, it seems that they are in fact resolved to do. Banks’loan pricing and portfolio streamlining plans concern mostly lending to small and mediumsized enterprises (SMEs), which in credit institutions’ view offers the largest room for maneuver to adjust lending volumes and prices.
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Опубликовано на портале: 17-12-2007
Johannes Jaeger, Vanessa Redak Financial Stability Report. 2006.  No. 12. P. 92-103. 
Although the New Basel Capital Accord (Basel II) makes no direct reference to loan pricing and lending terms, it is widely held that Basel II does, in fact, impact on loan pricing. A survey among Austrian banks on loan pricing strategies after Basel II aimed to identify the potential effects of Basel II on loan pricing. This article summarizes and analyzes the results of this survey and their implications for the Austrian lending business. The survey found a significant trend toward risk-adequate pricing. While it is impossible to predict at this point whether banks will eventually successfully implement this strategy, given the competitive environment, it seems that they are in fact resolved to do. Banks’loan pricing and portfolio streamlining plans concern mostly lending to small and mediumsized enterprises (SMEs), which in credit institutions’ view offers the largest room for maneuver to adjust lending volumes and prices.
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Опубликовано на портале: 15-11-2007
Alexandra Eremia, Ion Stancu Theoretical and Applied Economics. 2006.  No. 6. P. 23-32. 
The corporations gain a power of influence, unthinkable years ago; they have acquired more and more rights and, in some way, govern the life of billions of peoples and of the earth in general. With every right, comes though the responsibility of the conservation and development of the environment in which the corporations act. The banking system has a major role to play in the evolution of the international framework, given its position on the economic stage. Some important banking groups realized this fact and made important steps in the area. The case study of the Holland banking group ABN AMRO proves the complexity of the introduction of sustainable development in the core of the financial business. The implementation is neither easy nor cheap. It implies essential changes in the bank management, in the way to determine the financial policies, in how to choose the clients, the employees, the suppliers etc. Led in an efficient way, sustainable banking implies innovation, creativity and, implicitly, new gains, through creating new products and opening new markets.
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Опубликовано на портале: 22-12-2007
Jaroslav Borovicka Financial Stability Report. 2007.  No. 13. P. 68-82. 
This paper revisits the issue of cost efficiency in the banking sector and the role of foreign ownership in European transition economies. The novelty of our approach is that we instrument for the decision of foreign investors to acquire domestic banks. This analysis allows us to evaluate the endogeneity bias that results from the so-called cream-skimming effect. Using a sample of 282 banks in 19 transition countries, we employ a two-stage instrumental variable approach. In the first stage, we estimate the probability of foreign acquisitions of domestic banks by implementing a panel probit model. In the second stage, the estimated propensity scores are used in the Battese and Coelli (1995) stochastic efficiency frontier specification. Although cost differences may also be caused by different product characteristics, our main finding is that the instrumental variable approach reveals that foreign ownership has a negative impact on cost efficiency. This observation indicates that in the transition countries studied the cream-skimming effect is significant, which implies that foreign investors tend to acquire the most cost efficient banks in the first place.
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Опубликовано на портале: 22-12-2007
Nicolae Danila Theoretical and Applied Economics. 2007.  Vol. 11. No. 11. P. 55-68. 
The Romanian Banking System demonstrated a sustained development over the last years, being prepared to continue its expansion and also proving to be a reliable partner to the real economy both in terms of the proposed financial solutions and the perception of risks incurred by different economic activities during this entire period. Market maturation along with the specific requirements of the retail and corporate customers entailed a developed degree of sophistication of banking products and services. Moreover, the internationalized competition on the Romanian market induced an accelerated integration and leveling of the banking market, also generating higher growth rates compared to other Romanian industries. The Romanian Banking Sector is the main pillar of the financial system. The lately significant focusing of banks on the households resulted in an unprecedented development of retail loans. Nevertheless, in the corporate segment, still dominant in total loans, the competition is also increasing, the banks currently concentrating on the small and medium enterprises. The main features of the Romanian financial and banking sector are it is healthy and operates in a well regulated market. The Romanian Banking Sector was and will be the main pillar of the real integration and convergence of Romania to the European Union.
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Опубликовано на портале: 03-12-2007
Yuri Sato The Developing Economies. 2007.  Vol. 1. No. 43. P. 91-120. 
The banking sector underwent drastic reform in post-crisis Indonesia. Bank restructuring, driven by IMF conditionalities, resulted in the exit of insolvent banks and ownership changes of major private banks. Through recapitalization and sales of government-held shares, foreign-owned banks emerged as leading actors in the place of business-group-affiliated banks. As part of the restructuring process, an exit rule was created. The central bank, which up to that time had been given only partial authority under the jurisdiction of the Minister of Finance, now gained a full range of authority over banks. The central bank's supervision system on banks, risk management systems at individual banks, and their efforts to build risk management capacities, began to function. This is totally different from the old financial institution under the Soeharto regime, where banks had no incentive to control risks, as the regime tacitly ensured their survival.
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Опубликовано на портале: 17-03-2005
Douglas W. Diamond, Philip H. Dybvig Journal of Political Economy. 1983.  Vol. 91. No. 3. P. 401-419. 
This paper shows that bank deposit contracts can provide allocations superior to those of exchange markets, offering an explanation of how banks subject to runs can attract deposits. Investors face privately observed risks which lead to a demand for liquidity. Traditional demand deposit contracts which provide liquidity have multiple equilibria, one of which is a bank run. Bank runs in the model cause real economic damage, rather than simply reflecting other problems. Contracts which can prevent runs are studied, and the analysis shows that there are circumstances when government provision of deposit insurance can produce superior contracts.
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Опубликовано на портале: 14-03-2005
Xavier Freixas, Bruno Parigi Journal of Financial Intermediation. 1998.  Vol. 7. No. 1. P. 3-31. 
The increased fragility of the banking industry has generated growing concern about the risks associated with payment systems. Although in most industrial countries different interbank payment systems coexist, little is really known about their properties in terms of risk and efficiency. How should payment systems be designed? We tackle this question by comparing the two main types of payment systems, gross and net, in a framework where uncertainty arises from several sources: the time of consumption, the location of consumption, and the return on investment. Payments across locations can be made either by directly transferring liquidity or by transferring claims against the bank in the other location. The two mechanisms are interpreted as the gross and net settlement systems in interbank payments. We characterize the equilibria in the two systems and identify the trade-off in terms of safety and efficiency
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Опубликовано на портале: 16-04-2007
Christopher W. Anderson, Terry L. Campbell II Journal of Corporate Finance. 2004.  Vol. 10. No. 3. P. 327-354. 
We investigate external and internal corporate governance activity observed at Japanese banks over 1985–1996. External governance appears to be inactive, and even after the onset of the banking crisis of the 1990s there are few mergers, failures, and other changes in ownership and control. Prior to the banking crisis we do not find a relation between bank performance and executive turnover. In contrast, non-routine turnover of bank presidents is inversely related to both stock returns and profitability in the 1990s. Consequently, internal governance activity is observable following the onset of the Japanese banking crisis, a period otherwise characterized by inactive external governance and regulatory forbearance.
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Опубликовано на портале: 18-04-2007
Gary Gorton, Frank Schmid Journal of Corporate Finance. 1999.  Vol. 5. No. 2. P. 119-140. 
The ownership structures of firms are endogenous. This makes it difficult to produce w direct evidence on the Berle and Means Berle, A.A., Means, G.C., 1932. The Modern x Corporation and Private Property, New York. hypothesis that corporate governance becomes less efficient as the degree of separation of ownership and control increases. We address this issue by studying Austrian cooperative banking, an organizational form in which the ownership structure is exogenous. We show that firm performance declines as the number of cooperative members increases, corresponding to a greater separation of ownership and control. We also provide direct evidence on another theory that is difficult to test, namely, the efficiency wage hypothesis. We show that the decline in firm performance as the number of shareholders increases is due to an increase in efficiency wages.
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Credit Risk Evaluation [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 15-11-2007
Gheorghe Orzan, Mihail Nora, Iuliana Cetina Theoretical and Applied Economics.. 2007.  Vol. 4. No. 4. P. 47-52. 
In the environment in which a bank functions there are many risk sources that determine the reduction of the profitability. These risk sources must be attentively identified, measured and taken into consideration for the elaboration of a bank’s general strategy of monitoring and disproof of the risks. The risk is generally defined as: the adverse effect that certain distinct incertitude sources exert over the profitability. The measurement of the risk requires that both the incertitude and the potential adverse effect over the profitability be surprised and evaluated.
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Опубликовано на портале: 29-10-2007
Nicolae Dardac, Bogdan Moinescu Theoretical and Applied Economics. 2005.  Vol. 5 (500). P. 41-46. 
The element of absolute novelty brought about by the « Basel II » agreement consists in the multiple approaches that can be used by banks when calculating the capital requirements for loan and operational risk. By implementing the solutions offered by “Basel II”, the Romanian loan-supplying institutions which will choose either the standard approach or the advanced one will be able to use the ratings provided by an external loan evaluation agency that will be set up for this particular purpose. In order to develop such an entity, it is essential to create a rating system based on quantitative analysis that will enable a correct assessment of the probability of non-payment according to the “Basel II” requirements. The tests performed on the models used in the present research study have pointed out the fact that the loan risk quantitative assessment and the setting up of an organization specialized in its external assessment in Romania are both necessary and possible. Taking these opportunities is however conditioned by the creation of an information system that may secure the periodical influx of valid and sufficient data for the adequate methodological calibers, under conditions of autonomy and transparency.
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Опубликовано на портале: 22-12-2007
Stefan W. Schmitz Financial Stability Report. 2007.  No. 13. P. 98-114. 
The purpose of this article is to disseminate the main results of the program “Ageing and Its Implications for Banks and Bank Strategy” of the Oesterreichische Nationalbank’s (OeNB’s) Financial Markets Analysis and Surveillance Division and to draw conclusions about the implications of aging for financial stability. The first question that arises is whether demographic change is relevant for banks and financial stability at all. The paper answers this question in the affirmative and goes on to analyze the impact of demographic change on the environment in which banks operate, i.e. on economic growth, interest rates, and residential real estate markets, and on the level and composition of household demand for bank services and products. The article summarizes how banks might adapt their strategies in response to demographic change. Finally, it draws conclusions about the potential implications for financial stability.
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Опубликовано на портале: 23-11-2007
Walter Engert, Jason Allen Bank of Canada Review. 2007.  P. 33-45. 
Allen and Engert report on recent research at the Bank of Canada on various aspects of efficiency in the Canadian banking industry. This research suggests that, overall, Canadian banks appear to be relatively efficient producers of financial services and they do not exercise monopoly or collusive-oligopoly power. The authors note the value of continuing to investigate opportunities to improve efficiency and competition in financial services in Canada.
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