Всего статей в данном разделе : 89
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Nancy J. Miller Journal of Socio-Economics. 2001. Vol. 30. No. 6. P. 475-493.
The social environment in which the retailer conducts business is not often measured for its fundamental influences on consumers' local purchasing behavior. This study, using social capital theory as a theoretical framework, examines whether reciprocal actions exist between community members as consumers and retailers and if these actions are persuasive in predicting the economic activity regarded as consumer inshopping. Determinants of inshopping behavior are analyzed from the community member's perspective in a study of the rural community marketplace. The sample population consisted of consumers living in two rural Iowa communities with populations less than 10,000, agricultural-based economies, and retail mixtures of locally owned and operated small-sized businesses as well as national chain and discount organizations. Structural equation modeling estimated the causal patterns among consumers' attachment to community with two endogenous variables regarding reciprocity and inshopping behavior. Findings offer supporting evidence that social relationships aid in predicting rural marketplace relationships.
Core networks and tie activation: what kinds of routine networks allocate resources in nonroutine situations? [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004Jeanne S. Hurlbert, Valerie A. Haines, John J. Beggs American Sociological Review. 2000. Vol. 65. No. 4. P. 598-618.
Social resources research has linked activated ties to outcomes-but not to the core networks from which the ties came. This study shifts the focus to the question of how networks allocate resources. The activation of core network ties is analyzed in a nonroutine situation-a hurricane-to determine how core network structure affects the degree to which individuals activate core network ties to gain one type of social resource-informal support. Results show that the structures of individuals' core networks affect the degree to which individuals activate ties from those networks to gain informal support. Individuals embedded in higher-density core networks (i.e., alters are connected to one another), core networks with more gender diversity (i.e., a mix of men and women), and networks that contain higher proportions of men, kin, and younger individuals, activated core network ties for informal support to a greater degree than did individuals embedded in core networks lacking these characteristics. The conclusions consider the study's implications for understanding resource activation in the contexts of social support and job searches.
Опубликовано на портале: 17-09-2003Xueguang Zhou American Sociological Review. 2003. Vol. 68. No. 1. P. 75-102.
Interfirm contracts represent common economic relations in the marketplace; they are also deeply embedded in social relations and social institutions. In the context of China's transitional economy, this study examines how three mechanisms-economizing transaction costs, network-based social relations, and institutional links-- affect interfirm contractual relationships in (1) the choice of search channels for contractual partners, (2) the formality and provisions in a contract, and (3) the intensity of social interaction in contract implementation. Empirical evidence is drawn from information collected on 877 contracts from 620 firms in two Chinese cities, Beijing and Guangzhou. The authors find distinct roles of social relations, institutional links, and regulatory environments in the initiation of contractual partners and the forms of contracts adopted, whereas transaction-specific factors play a significant role in the intensity of social interaction in contract implementation. These findings suggest the interplay among economic calculativeness, social networks and institutional links, and the complementarity in the underlying theoretical ideas.
Embeddedness in the Making of Financial Capital: How Social Relations and Networks Benefit Firms Seeking Financing [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Brian Uzzi American Sociological Review. 1999. Vol. 64. No. 4. P. 481-505.
The article investigates how social embeddedness affects an organization's acquisition and cost of financial capital in middle-market banking-a lucrative but understudied financial sector. Using existing theory and original fieldwork, Author develops a framework to explain how embeddedness can influence which firms get capital and at what cost. I then statistically examine my claims using national data on small-business lending. At the level of dyadic ties, author finds that firms that embed their commercial transactions with their lender in social attachments receive lower interest rates on loans. At the network level, firms are more likely to get loans and to receive lower interest rates on loans if their network of bank ties has a mix of embedded ties and arm's-length ties. These network effects arise because embedded ties motivate network partners to share private resources, while arm's-length ties facilitate access to public information on market prices and loan opportunities so that the benefits of different types of ties are optimized within one network. Author concludes with a discussion of how the value produced by a network is at a premium when it creates a bridge that links the public information of markets with the private resources of relationships.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004Paul Ingram, Peter W. Roberts American Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 106. No. 2. P. 387-421.
Friendships with competitors can improve the performance of organizations through the mechanisms of enhanced collaboration, mitigated competition, and better information exchange. Moreover, these benefits are best achieved when competing managers are embedded in a cohesive network of friendships (i.e., one with many friendships among competitors), since cohesion facilitates the verification of information culled from the network, eliminates the structural holes faced by customers, and facilitates the normative control of competitors. The first part of this analysis examines the performance implications of the friendship-network structure within the Sydney hotel industry, with performance being the yield (i.e., revenue per available room) of a given hotel. This shows that friendships with competitors lead to dramatic improvements in hotel yields. Performance is further improved if a manager's competitors are themselves friends, evidencing the benefit of cohesive friendship networks. The second part of the analysis examines the structure of friendship ties among hotel managers and shows that friendships are more likely between managers who are competitors.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-05-2004Mark S. Mizruchi, Linda Brewster Stearns American Sociological Review. 2001. Vol. 66. No. 5. P. 647-671.
Economic actors confront various forms of uncertainty making decisions, and how they deal with these obstacles may affect their success in accomplishing their goals. This study examines the means by which relationship managers in a major commercial bank attempt to close transactions with their corporate customers. It is hypothesized that under conditions of high uncertainty, bankers will rely on colleagues with whom they are strongly tied for advice on and support of their deals. Drawing on recent network theory, it is also hypothesized that transactions in which bankers use relatively sparse approval networks are more likely to successfully close than are transactions involving dense approval networks. Both hypotheses are supported. Bankers are faced with a strategic paradox: Their tendency to rely on those they trust in dealing with uncertainty creates conditions that render deals less likely to be closed successfully. This paradox represents an example of unanticipated consequences of purposive social action.
Hazards of the Market: The Continuity and Dissolution of Interorganizational Market Relationships [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Wayne E. Baker, Robert R. Faulkner, Gene A. Fisher American Sociological Review. 1998. Vol. 63. No. 2. P. 147-176.
We propose a theory of the market as an "intertemporal" process that integrates multiple theoretical perspectives. Using event-history methods, we analyze the dissolution of interorganizational market ties between advertising agencies and their clients as a function of three forces-competition, power, and institutional forces. The informal "rules of exchange" institutionalized in the "emergence" phase of the advertising services market include exclusivity (sole-source) and loyalty (infrequent switching). We find that most exchange relationships between advertising agencies and their clients are indeed exclusive, and most last for several years; but competition, power, and institutional forces support or undermine these rules. Most institutional forces reduce the risk of dissolution of agency-client ties. Powerful advertising agencies mobilize resources to increase tie stability, but powerful clients mobilize resources to increase or decrease stability. Competition is the weakest market force, but it has a consistent and substantial effect on tie dissolution: Competition always increases the risk of dissolution. We conclude that the market is institutionalized as imperfectly repeated patterns of exchange, because competition and changing norms about the duration of market ties destabilize market relationships.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-07-2003Jimy M. Sanders, Victor Nee American Sociological Review. 1996. Vol. 61. No. 2. P. 231-249.
Опубликовано на портале: 16-11-2006Мириам Дезер Вестник общественного мнения: Данные. Анализ. Дискуссии. 2003. № 1 (67). С. 45-52.
Автор описывает социальные механизмы неформальных отношений, сложившихся в России в области здравоохранения, высшего образования и вооруженных сил.
"Нужные знакомства": особенности социальной организации в условиях институциональных дефицитов [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 19-11-2006Лев Дмитриевич Гудков, Борис Владимирович Дубин Мониторинг общественного мнения: экономические и социальные перемены. 2002. № 3 (59). С. 24-39.
Одновременно с ростом интереса к тематике гражданского общества резко выросло внимание к так называемым "неформальным отношениям и практикам", теневым связям, сетевым структурам социальных отношений, анализу коррупции. Уже привычным в публицистике и даже в социальной аналитике стало говорить о преобладании "неформальных отношений" в социальной жизни нынешних россиян, в частности отношений, построенных на "подкупе", "взятке" и пр. Соответственно, систему власти в сегодняшней России либо даже все современное российское общество нередко характеризуют как глубоко коррумпированные. Значительная, если не большая часть выступлений на эти темы по-прежнему сохраняет моралистический, осуждающий тон, особенно свойственный зарубежным наблюдателям. Подобные стереотипы суждений постоянно присутствуют в современной публицистике. Впрочем, излюбленной темой для рассуждений интеллигентской журналистики они стали уже в позднесоветские и раннеперестроечные времена.
Опубликовано на портале: 30-07-2003Валерий Георгиевич Виноградский Социологический журнал. 1999. № 3/4. С. 36-48.
Статья В.Г. Виноградского погружает читателя в «мир» неформальной экономики. «Погружение» происходит благодаря анализу классических литературных текстов и нарративов, записанных в ходе полевых социологических исследований крестьянства Южной России (время записи – осень 1999 – зима 2000 гг.). "Хочешь жить, умей вертеться!" – эта немудреная житейская сентенция, которую можно назвать девизом неформальной экономики, выполняет, по мнению автора, одновременно две важных социальных функции. Во-первых, она итожит нелегкий опыт повседневного выживания и, во-вторых, кратко и понятно формулирует необходимую и достаточную программу их будущих житейских опытов. Иначе говоря, она содержит в себе одно из немногих универсальных правил рутинного человеческого существования. Указанные функции неформальной экономики демонстрируются автором на примерах производства, потребления и повседневного использования крестьянскими хозяйствами пищи, предметов одежды, хозяйственной утвари. Особое внимание уделяется специфике крестьянских социальных сетей.
Опубликовано на портале: 24-05-2004Joel M. Podolny, James N. Baron American Sociological Review. 1997. Vol. 62. No. 5. P. 673-693.
We examine how the structure and content of individuals' networks in the workplace affect intraorganizational mobility. Consistent with prior research, we find that an individual's mobility is enhanced by having a large, sparse network of informal ties for acquiring information and resources. However, in contrast to previous work, we emphasize the importance of consistent role expectations for performance and mobility. We find evidence that well-defined performance expectations are more likely to arise from a small, dense network of individuals. We develop a typology of network contents and document the interaction between network structure and content in analyses of mobility among employees of a high-technology firm. We also examine how the effects of tie duration on mobility vary by tie content. We discuss the implications of our results for theory and research on networks and organizational mobility.
Опубликовано на портале: 29-05-2004Linda D. Molim, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Gretchen Peterson American Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 105. No. 5. P. 1396-1427.
The classical exchange theorists proposed that trust is more likely to develop between partners when exchange occurs without explicit negotiations or bringing agreements. Under these conditions, the risk and uncertainty of exchange provide the opportunity for partners to demonstrate their trustworthiness. This study develops the theoretical implications of this proposition and conducts an experimental test that compares levels of both trust and commitment in two forms or direct exchange, negotiated and reciprocal. The results support the classical proposition, showing that reciprocal exchange produces stronger trust and affective commitment that negotiated exchange, and that behaviors signaling the partners trustworthiness have greater impact on trust in reciprocal exchange.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Alberto Palloni, Douglas S. Massey, Miguel Ceballos American Journal of Sociology. 2001. Vol. 106. No. 5. P. 1262-1298.
This article uses a multistate hazard model to test the network hypothesis of social capital theory. The effects of family network ties on individual migration are estimated while controlling for measured and unmeasured conditions that influence migration risks for all family members. Results suggest that social network effects are robust to the introduction of controls for human capital, common household characteristics, and unobserved conditions. Estimates also confirm the ancillary hypothesis, which states that diffuse social capital distributed among community and household members strongly influences the likelihood of out-migration, thus validating social capital theory in general and the network hypothesis in particular.
Опубликовано на портале: 22-05-2004Roberto M. Fernandez, Emilio J. Castilla, Paul Moore American Journal of Sociology. 2000. Vol. 105. No. 5. P. 1288-1356.
This article argues that a common organizational practice the hiring of new workers via employee referrals provides key insights into the notion of social capital. Employers who use such hiring methods are quintessential social capitalists, viewing workers social connections as resources in which they can invest in order to gain economic returns in the form of better hiring outcomes. Using unique data on the dollar costs of screening, hiring, and training, this article finds that the firm s investment in the social capital of its employees yields significant economic returns.