Laboratorium. Журнал социальных исследований
Accountability Struggles in Democratic Argentina: Civic Engagement from the Human Rights Movement to the Néstor Kirchner аdministration [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 19-10-2010Enrique Peruzzotti Laboratorium. Журнал социальных исследований. 2010. № 2. С. 65-85.
Argentina’s current democratic period, inaugurated in 1983, has differed markedly from the country’s previous democratic experiences as a result of a new form of relationship between citizens and politicians, particularly the emergence of a more sophisticated and demanding citizenry determined to translate preexisting ideals of democratic representation into a novel civic concern for governmental accountability. The dramatic experience of state terrorism under the last military dictatorship, which governed the country from 1976 to 1983, gave rise to a new actor—the human rights movement—which would play a crucial pedagogic role in Argentine society, introducing a much-needed concern for rights and the rule of law into the country’s political culture.
Activists in the Trap of AntiPolitics: An Exploration of the Powerlessness of Human Rights NGOs in Russia [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 19-10-2010Françoise Daucé Laboratorium. Журнал социальных исследований. 2010. № 2. С. 86-102.
In Russia, the “democratic transition” took place about ten years after the transitions in Latin America: the democratic period began in Argentina in 1983, while the Soviet Union disappeared in 1991. Many comparative works have highlighted the role played by civil societies in the fall of these authoritarian regimes (Okuneva 1994; Khoros 1998; Vizgunova 2001; Vorozheikina 2001; Meier-Dallach and Juchler 2002). Andrew Arato and Jean Cohen were “truly impressed by the importance in East Europe and Latin America, as well as in the advanced capitalist democracies, of the struggle for rights and their expansion, of the establishment of grassroots associations and initiatives and the ever renewed construction of institutions and forums of critical publics.”
Civil Society, Human Rights Struggles and Democratization in Argentina and Russia: Some Brief Comparative Conclusions [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 19-10-2010Françoise Daucé, Enrique Peruzzotti Laboratorium. Журнал социальных исследований. 2010. № 2. С. 103-106.
The late 1980s and early 90s saw an upsurge in comparative research on civil society in Latin America and Eastern Europe. At the time, scholars supported the idea of a “third wave of democratization,” and Latin America was presented as a model for post-communist countries. Civil societies in both regions were analyzed comparatively. Emblematically, the Russian Soldiers’ Mothers were often compared with the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo in Argentina. However, the further evolution of postcommunist societies soon discouraged further comparison. This was especially the case for Russia, where social and political change took unforeseen paths. Scholars came to underline the speciﬁ city of Russian social structures and traditions to explain this. Given this divergence, why revisit the comparison between Russia and Argentina today?
European Politics and Society: Studies by Young Russian Scholars. Saint Petersburg: Intersocis [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 21-10-2010Elena Belokurova Laboratorium. Журнал социальных исследований. 2010. № 2. С. 448-449.
European Politics and Society: Studies by Young Russian Scholars. Saint Petersburg: Intersocis, Vol. 1: 2009. 224 p., Vol. 2: 2010. Both volumes contain papers by doctoral students based in Russia and working in the ﬁ eld of European Studies. The contributions grew out of a series of summer schools for postgraduate students entitled European Union Studies: Methodological Opportunities and Limits held in 2007, 2008, and 2009.
Illusions of Market Paradise: State, Business, and Economic Reform in Postsocialist Russia and Post-1980s Crisis Argentina [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 19-10-2010Gastón Joaquín Beltrán, Jeffrey K. Hass Laboratorium. Журнал социальных исследований. 2010. № 2. С. 123-154.
The 1980s and early 1990s were characterized by sweeping, radical neoliberal, monetarist-inspired economic reforms designed to correct ﬁ nancial or structural crises. Latin American countries initiated the wave, followed by Eastern Europe and the former USSR, although the timing, scope, and policies varied. Often one reads accounts of friends and foes of reform lined up to do battle in domestic and international alliances. However, reform processes and outcomes do not always follow the formula of reformers versus conservatives; there is more to the balance of power than these all-too-common accounts would suggest.
Опубликовано на портале: 20-10-2010Gabriel Kessler, María Mercedes Di Virgilio Laboratorium. Журнал социальных исследований. 2010. № 2. С. 200-220.
Through much of the twentieth century, Argentina stood out among Latin American nations due to the signiﬁ cant inﬂ uence of its middle class. Various elements shaped this class, which not only occupied public service positions, as was the case in most of Latin America (Touraine 1988), but was also involved in a wide range of occupations. Its genesis occurred during the 1930s, when differential rent deriving from the agricultural sector resulted in distribution toward the administrative, service, and public administration sectors. During both the ﬁ rst and the second administrations of Juan D. Perón (1946–55), social beneﬁ ts favored the middle segments of society and also led to the formation of a protected working class that, to a large extent, considered itself part of the middle class.
Insecure Land Rights, Obstacles to Family Farming, and the Weakness of Protest in Rural Russia [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 20-10-2010Oane Visser Laboratorium. Журнал социальных исследований. 2010. № 2. С. 275-295.
This article discusses property reforms in the postcommunist countryside (focusing on Russian policies, which have been the most “progressive” among the dominant economies of the former Soviet Union) and analyzes why they have hardly stimulated capital formation and empowerment among the rural population so far, compared with rural developments in Argentina that are discussed by Bidaseca in her paper in this issue.
Making “the People”: Political Imaginaries and the Materiality of Barricades in Mexico and Latvia [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 19-10-2010Iván Arenas, Dace Dzenovska Laboratorium. Журнал социальных исследований. 2010. № 2. С. 179-199.
In 2006, improvised barricades went up in the Mexican city of Oaxaca to defend the city’s residents and members of the Popular Assembly of the Peoples of Oaxaca from paramilitary incursions and police repression. Composed of everything from appropriated buses to nails, sticks and string, and organized and protected by housewives and young kids from urban crews, the Oaxacan barricades cultivated an intimate and effervescent sociality of el pueblo (the people). Fifteen years earlier, in 1991, the Latvian tauta (the people or Volk) also constructed barricades in the streets of Rīga to shield themselves and important landmarks from Soviet military units.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-10-2010Marina Farinetti Laboratorium. Журнал социальных исследований. 2010. № 2. С. 107-122.
The process of democratization in contemporary Argentina began in 1983. Since then, government formation has been based on periodically held democratic elections. Nevertheless, there have been serious political crises, which have in various ways affected the stability of most presidents over the period. In 1989, the most profound economic crisis Argentinians had experienced since 1983 resulted in hyperinﬂ ation (around 300% per month) and the spread of lootings and social unrest in most large cities.
Опубликовано на портале: 20-10-2010Gabriel Kessler, María Mercedes Di Virgilio, Svetlana Yaroshenko Laboratorium. Журнал социальных исследований. 2010. № 2. С. 252-256.
In general, the concept of new poverty focuses on the emergence of groups characterized by strong downward mobility, as well as previously unknown types of poverty. Its speciﬁ c deﬁ nition, therefore, varies among countries. The cases of Russia and Argentina illustrate this variation. In Russia, new poverty became a subject of debate following the market reforms of the 1990s, several years later than in Argentina. Poverty in post-Soviet Russia has a number of speciﬁ c features. Firstly, it is a widespread phenomenon. Impoverishment peaked in 1999: at that time, depending on the standards used, the share of poor people was between 20 and 50 percent.
Опубликовано на портале: 20-10-2010Svetlana Yaroshenko Laboratorium. Журнал социальных исследований. 2010. № 2. С. 408-413.
An aim in this paper is to identify what is special about the “new poverty” that has emerged in Russia as a result of the liberal reforms of the 1990s. I discuss perceptions of the phenomenon, outline its conditions and limits, and explain how it is reproduced. The paper employs an extended case method, including a detailed ethnographic case study and local surveys carried out between 1998 and 2008.
Опубликовано на портале: 19-10-2010Roxana Eleta de Filippis, Elena Mascova Laboratorium. Журнал социальных исследований. 2010. № 2. С. 155-178.
Pension systems have been classiﬁed into two types: social insurance, which involves a signiﬁcant intergenerational transfer as the working-age population ﬁnances the pension payments of current retirees—the principle known as “pay-as-you-go” (PAYG)—and multipillar systems that combine a universal public pension scheme with occupationally-based or private individual alternatives to it. In multipillar countries, the PAYG instrument also exists, but the major pension beneﬁts come from funded schemes (private or public).
The Peasants of El Ceibal and Access to Justice. Land Rights and Precarious Land Tenure in Santiago del Estero, Argentina [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 20-10-2010Karina Bidaseca Laboratorium. Журнал социальных исследований. 2010. № 2. С. 257-274.
The primary focus of this article is to analyze, through the study of a trial that borders on the absurd (yet is not an exception), how a subsistence economy and a peasant way of life were brutally interrupted by an auction, and how subalternity could be momentarily interrupted by the peasants’ agency.
Опубликовано на портале: 21-10-2010Ludmila da Silva Catela Laboratorium. Журнал социальных исследований. 2010. № 2. С. 305-326.
The church where Lavalle was skinned. A small town surrounded by mountains. A picturesque cemetery watching over the town from on high, as was the “custom in olden times.” A small municipal ofﬁ ce next to the only public telephone in town, and the center of public life, the square. In the middle is a ﬂ agpole that ﬂ ies a large Argentine ﬂ ag on special occasions and patriotic holidays. At the base of the ﬂ agpole is a plaque with the words “God, Country, Home. Tumbaya 1979,” an unmistakable sign of the military presence during the 1970s. It might be added that the only plaques in town, in square and church, were placed there by the Argentine Army in 1979.
Активисты в ловушке антиполитики. О бессилии право защитных неправительственных организаций в России. Резюме [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 12-10-2010Франсуаза Досэ Laboratorium. Журнал социальных исследований. 2010. № 2. С. 378-381.
В России так называемый «период перехода к демократии» начался на десять лет позже, чем аналогичные процессы в Латинской Америке. Сравнительные работы, посвященные этому вопросу, рассматривали роль гражданского общества в падении авторитарных режимов в обоих регионах. К концу 1990-х годов, однако, многие социологи отмечали разницу между Россией и странами Латинской Америки. На фоне растущего разочарования процессами демократизации ученые объясняли трудности этого перехода в России слабостью гражданского общества.