Journal of Health and Social Behavior
A Critical Theory of Medical Discourse: Ideology, Social Control, and the Processing of Social Context in Medical Encounters [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 23-03-2007Howard Waitzkin Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1989. Vol. 30. No. 2. P. 220-239.
The personal troubles that patients bring to doctors often have roots in social issues beyond medicine. While medical encounters involve "micro-level" interactions between individuals, these interpersonal processes occur in a social context shaped by "macro-level" structures in society. Examining prior theories pertinent to medical discourse leads to the propositions: (a) that medical encounters tend to convey ideologic messages supportive of the current social order; (b) that these encounters have repercussions for social control; and (c) that medical language generally excludes a critical appraisal of the social context. The technical structure of the medical encounter, as traditionally seen by health professionals, masks a deeper structure that may have little to do with the conscious thoughts of professionals about what they are saying and doing. Similar patterns may appear in encounters between clients and members of other "helping" professions. Expressed marginally or conveyed by absence of criticism about contextual issues, ideology and social control in medical discourse remain largely unintentional mechanisms for achieving consent.