Всего статей в данном разделе : 216
Activity-Based Costing and Process Modeling for Cost-Conscious Product Design: A Case Study in a Manufacturing Company [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 21-06-2006Katja Tornberg, Miikka Jämsen, Jari Paranko International Journal of Production Economics. 2002. Vol. 79. No. 1. P. 75-82.
The most effective way to control costs is to design them out of the products. However, cost data is rarely available for product designers in a usable form. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of activity-based costing and the modeling of design, purchasing and manufacturing processes in providing useful cost information for product designers. The hypothesis was that activity-based costing and process modeling might provide an effective tool for the evaluation of different design options. The study was conducted in a large Finnish manufacturing company. First, the most costly items of one product's sub-assembly were studied in order to identify the activities needed to produce the items and to calculate their activity-based costs. Second, the processes, in other words the activity chains, were modeled with graphic flowcharts from product design, purchasing, and manufacturing departments. Finally, the applicability of activity-based cost information and process models to product designing practices was tested. The results of the study suggested that activity-based costing and process modeling provide a good starting point in heading toward more cost-conscious design. This way the designers learn the relationships between the activities performed in the organization and their associated costs. The development of a parametric cost estimation model based on activity-based costing and process modeling provides a challenge for future research.
Advanced Planning: The New Direction of Corporate Budgeting (Передовое планирование: новое направление в составлении корпоративного бюджета) [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 22-06-2006Kenton B. Walker Industrial Management & Data Systems. 1989. Vol. 89. No. 7.
Some of the weaknesses of contemporary computerised financial planning systems and procedures encouraged by batch-processing environments are described. The failure of many levels of corporate management actively to participate in financial planning or to rely on budgets for operating decisions or as a tool for performance evaluation is due to planning processes that force reliance on accounting and information systems personnel rather than depend on the efforts of operating management. A revolutionary new approach to computerised financial planning currently under way at Adolph Coors Company, Golden, Colorado, USA, is discussed.
Опубликовано на портале: 14-06-2006Mike Burkart, Fausto Panunzi Journal of Financial Intermediation. 2006. Vol. 15. No. 1. P. 1-31.
This paper analyzes the interaction between legal shareholder protection, managerial incentives, monitoring, and ownership concentration. Legal protection affects the expropriation of shareholders and the blockholder's incentives to monitor. Because monitoring weakens managerial incentives, both effects jointly determine the relationship between legal protection and ownership concentration. When legal protection facilitates monitoring better laws strengthen the monitoring incentives, and ownership concentration and legal protection are inversely related. By contrast, when legal protection and monitoring are substitutes better laws weaken the monitoring incentives, and the relationship between legal protection and ownership concentration is non-monotone. This holds irrespective of whether or not the large shareholder can reap private benefits. Moreover, better legal protection may exacerbate rather than alleviate the conflict of interest between large and small shareholders.
Опубликовано на портале: 11-11-2004Eugene F. Fama Journal of Political Economy. 1980. Vol. 88. No. 2. P. 288-307.
This paper attempts to explain how the separation of security ownership and control, typical of large corporations, can be an efficient form of economic organization. We first set aside the presumption that a corporation has owners in any meaningful sense. The entrepreneur is also laid to rest, at least for the purposes of the large modern corporation. The two functions usually attributed to the entrepreneur--management and risk bearing--are treated as naturally separate factors within the set of contracts called a firm. The firm is disciplined by competition from other firms, which forces the evolution of devides for efficiently monitoring the performance of the entire team and of its individual members. Individual participants in the firm, and in particular its managers, face both the discipline and opportunities provided by the markets for their services, both within and outside the firm.
Опубликовано на портале: 16-06-2006Congsheng Wu Journal of Business & Economic Studies. 2005. Vol. 11. No. 1. P. 19-33.
This study examines the relation between the offer price adjustment, initial return, and subsequent short-run performance for a sample of initial public offerings (IPO's) made by US industrial companies from 1986 to 1996. The IPO's are divided into three categories (cold, cool, and hot issues) based on the offer price relative to the suggested price range revealed in the preliminary prospectus. It is found that the offer price adjustment not only predicts the first-day return, but also predicts subsequent short-run performance in the same direction up to three months after issuance. Moreover, different types of IPO's demonstrate distinct cross-sectional behavior in multivariate regressions of initial returns. Our results suggest that cold IPO's are quite unique and deserve more attention in future studies.
Опубликовано на портале: 14-06-2006Mihir A. Desai, C. Fritz Foley, James R. Hines Journal of Finance. 2004. Vol. 59. No. 6. P. 2451-2487.
This paper analyzes the capital structures of foreign affiliates and internal capital markets of multinational corporations. Ten percent higher local tax rates are associated with 2.8% higher debt/asset ratios, with internal borrowing being particularly sensitive to taxes. Multinational affiliates are financed with less external debt in countries with underdeveloped capital markets or weak creditor rights, reflecting significantly higher local borrowing costs. Instrumental variable analysis indicates that greater borrowing from parent companies substitutes for three-quarters of reduced external borrowing induced by capital market conditions. Multinational firms appear to employ internal capital markets opportunistically to overcome imperfections in external capital markets.
Опубликовано на портале: 16-06-2006Robert Goldstein, Nengju Ju, Hayne E. Leland Journal of Business. 2001. Vol. 74. No. 4. P. 483-513.
A model of dynamic capital structure is proposed. Even though the optimal strategy is implemented over an arbitrarily large number of restructuring-periods, a scaling feature inherent in the framework permits simple closed-form expressions to be obtained for equity and debt prices. When a firm has the option to increase future debt levels, tax advantages to debt increase significantly, and both the optimal leverage ratio range and predicted credit spreads are more in line with what is observed in practice.
Опубликовано на портале: 14-06-2006Hyun-Han Shin, Rene M. Stulz Quarterly Journal of Economics. 1998. Vol. 113. No. 2. P. 531-552.
Using segment information from Compustat, we find that the investment by a segment of a diversified firm depends on the cash flow of the firm's other segments, but significantly less than it depends on its own cash flow. The investment by segments of highly diversified firms is less sensitive to their cash flow than the investment of comparable single-segment firms. The sensitivity of a segment's investment to the cash flow of other segments does not depend on whether its investment opportunities are better than those of the firm's other segments.
Опубликовано на портале: 21-06-2006Lyndal Drennan, Michael Kelly Critical Perspectives on Accounting. 2002. Vol. 13. No. 3. P. 311-331.
Research dealing with the implementation of system changes such as activity-based costing (ABC) systems is founded largely on a presumption that the motivation for the innovation is economic. The definition of success or failure then rests on the project’s reaching a stage of implementation where the new data are used in routine and/or unforeseen ways to improve economic efficiency. This paper presents a view of an ABC project where complex motivations, both economic and institutional, are identified, these held in turn by different groups within the organization as well as external groups likely to be affected by the project. Seen in terms of its institutional motivations, the project, documented in an internal review as a failure because it was abandoned without using the data, can be defined as a success by at least some of the affected groups.
Опубликовано на портале: 16-06-2006Kee H. Chung, Mingsheng Li, Linda Yu Financial Management. 2005. Vol. 34. No. 3. P. 65-88.
We consider a simple model positing that initial public offering price is equal to the present value of an entity's assets in place and growth opportunities. The model predicts that initial return is positively related to both the size and risk of growth opportunities. Consistent with this prediction, we find initial return to be positively related to both the fraction of the offer price that is accounted for by the present value of growth opportunities and various proxies of issue uncertainty. We also find that IPO investors equate one dollar of growth opportunities to approximately three quarters of tangible assets.
Blockholder Ownership: Effects on Firm Value in Market and Control Based Governance Systems [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 14-06-2006Steen Thomsen, Torben Pedersen, Hans Kurt Kvist Journal of Corporate Finance. 2006. Vol. 12. No. 2. P. 246-269.
In this study, Granger tests are used to examine the relationship between blockholder ownership and the values of the largest companies in the European Union and the US. Previous studies on US data have found that blockholder ownership has no systematic effect on performance. We propose that these results may not apply to Continental Europe, where ownership concentration is typically higher, the level of investor protection is lower, and influential blockholders may have objectives other than shareholder value. In accordance with previous research, we find no significant association between blockholder ownership and prior or subsequent firm value in either the US or the UK. Nonetheless, in Continental Europe we find a negative association between blockholder ownership and firm value or accounting returns in the next period. Further analysis reveals that this association is significant only for companies with high initial levels of blockholder ownership (>10%). We interpret this finding as evidence of conflicts of interest between blockholders and minority investors. The percentage of blockholder ownership in Continental Europe may be too high from a minority shareholder value viewpoint.
Опубликовано на портале: 14-06-2006Helen Short, Kevin Keasey, Darren Duxbury International Journal of the Economics of Business. 2002. Vol. 9. No. 3. P. 375-399.
This paper examines empirically the effects of management ownership and ownership by large external shareholders on the capital structure of the firm from an agency theory perspective. The paper extends the US literature on the topic by examining the effect of interactions between management ownership and ownership by large external shareholders on the capital structure of UK firms. For a sample of UK firms, the paper provides empirical evidence that suggests the debt ratio is positively related to management ownership and negatively related to ownership by large external shareholders. Furthermore, the presence of a large external shareholder acts to negate the positive relationship between debt ratios and management ownership; in the presence of a large external shareholder, no significant relationship between debt ratios and management ownership exists. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of large external shareholders affects the agency costs of debt and equity.
Опубликовано на портале: 14-03-2005Xavier Freixas, Bruno Parigi Journal of Financial Intermediation. 1998. Vol. 7. No. 1. P. 3-31.
The increased fragility of the banking industry has generated growing concern about the risks associated with payment systems. Although in most industrial countries different interbank payment systems coexist, little is really known about their properties in terms of risk and efficiency. How should payment systems be designed? We tackle this question by comparing the two main types of payment systems, gross and net, in a framework where uncertainty arises from several sources: the time of consumption, the location of consumption, and the return on investment. Payments across locations can be made either by directly transferring liquidity or by transferring claims against the bank in the other location. The two mechanisms are interpreted as the gross and net settlement systems in interbank payments. We characterize the equilibria in the two systems and identify the trade-off in terms of safety and efficiency
Control Systems in Multibusiness Companies: From Performance Management to Strategic Management [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 21-06-2006Fredrik Nilsson, Nils-Goran Olve European Management Journal. 2001. Vol. 19. No. 4. P. 344-358.
This article discusses the role of control systems in multibusiness companies. The focus is on formulation and implementation of corporate and business unit strategies. Three widely used categories of control models are discussed: (1) models for performance management, (2) models for value-based management, and (3) models for strategic management. The discussion is based upon central normative texts and examples from applications in Nordic companies. The description and discussion of the control models and their features should facilitate decision-making on the design and use of control systems in multibusiness companies.
Опубликовано на портале: 14-06-2006J. R. Franks, J. J. Pringle Journal of Finance. 1982. Vol. 37. No. 3. P. 751-763.
In this paper we consider the role of financial intermediaries in the valuation of firms and projects. We show that security prices should reflect both used and unused debt capacity if some corporations can act as financial intermediaries and can capture the tax benefits of debt capacity unused by the operating firm. We also provide some reasons why the value of the firm might be increased if the financing and operating risks of the firm are separated and financial intermediaries issue debt rather than the unit operating the asset.