World Bank Economic Review
Опубликовано на портале: 22-10-2007Jane Humphries World Bank Economic Review. 2003. Vol. 17. No. 2. P. 175 - 196.
This article overviews the extent and settings of child labor in Western Europe and the United States in the past. Historians must rely on a quantitative record that is patchy and difficult to interpret. As a result, it may not be possible to say with confidence whether the era of proto-industry or the early factories saw the high-water mark of child labor, and the nature and time path of decline remains debated. Nonetheless, broad trends emerge that put the experience of today's poor countries into historical perspective and provide an empirical backdrop for the analysis in the second and third parts of the article, which seek to explain why child labor increased during industrialization and declined thereafter
Comparing Poverty Rates Internationally: Lessons from recent studies in developed countries [статья]
Опубликовано на портале: 01-12-2003Anthony B. Atkinson World Bank Economic Review. 1991. Vol. 5. No. 1. P. 3-21.
Studies comparing poverty in different countries frequently inform the evaluation of past policies and the formulation of future policies for reducing poverty. If the comparisons are to be a valid foundation for such assessments, in particular if they are to be a guide to the effective allocation of funds, the underlying concepts must be examined and defined. This article discusses four issues that are critical in this respect: the choice of poverty indicator, the determination of the poverty line, the unit of analysis, and the choice of equivalance scale. A selection of studies of poverty in countries that belong to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development is used to show how the choices made in defining these indicators affect the findings about the extent and composition of the poor population. Although the context is different, the experience of rich countries may yield useful lessons for developing countries.
Опубликовано на портале: 01-12-2003Martin Ravallion, Shaohua Chen World Bank Economic Review. 1997. Vol. 11. No. 2.
Is it true that the poor have lost ground, even as average living standards have risen? No. Poor people typically share in rising average living standards. It has been claimed that in recent times the poor have lost ground, both relatively and absolutely, even as average standards of living were rising. Ravallion and Chen test that claim, using more than 100 household surveys for more than 40 countries. Overall there was a small decrease in poverty incidence in 1987-93, though experiences differed across regions and countries. There was no general tendency for inequality or polarization to increase with growth. Distribution improves as often as it worsens in growing economies, and negative growth often appears to be highly detrimental to distribution. Poor people typically do share in rising average living standards. This holds in all regions. It has been claimed that in recent times the poor have lost ground, both relatively and absolutely, even when average levels of living have risen. This article tests that claim using household surveys for 67 developing and transitional economies over 1981-94. It finds that changes in inequality and polarization were uncorrelated with changes in average living standards. Distribution improved as often as it worsened in growing economies, and negative growth was often more detrimental to distribution than positive growth. Overall, there was a small decrease in absolute poverty, although with diverse experiences across regions and countries. Almost always, poverty fell with growth in average living standards and rose with contraction.